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No 89
Vol. 89 No. 23
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In his books of al-Qabasat and al-Ufuq al-mobin, Mir Damad has presented two arguments against the annexed nature of existence. In this paper, the writer deals with two questions regarding these arguments. The first is whether Mir Damad’s arguments have a historical background, and the second is whether their consequences support his theory on the derivation of “existent”. Here, the first question is answered briefly by presenting two of the most famous arguments of philosophers and mutikallimun (particularly, Suhrawardi’s famous argument and that of the commentator of Maqasid). Next, the writer provides some reasons indicating that not only are Mir Damad’s arguments different from them but they are also logically and polemically superior to them. Nevertheless, a complete response is given to the second question by arguing that if we take one of Mir Damad’s theories of existence (non-precedence of existence to the object) for granted, the non-annexed nature of existence would result in the non-derivation of the “existent”.
Davood Hosseini
Keywords : Existence ، existent ، quiddity ، annexation ، semantic derivation ،
The subsistence of the soul after its parting with the body is one of the most challenging problems in the field of philosophy. This problem has been discussed by both philosophers who consider the soul to be pre-eternal and immaterial and philosophers who believe in the spiritual origination of the soul, and both groups have adduced various arguments in this regard. Khwajah Nasir al-Din Tusi, who is a Peripatetic philosopher, has posed the following question: Why, in the view of philosophers, are the body and bodily preparedness concomitant at the beginning of the origination of the soul but not at the stage of subsistence and separation? He has probed the response to this question in a treatise which he wrote about the subsistence of the soul. At the same time, he asked this question from his contemporary philosopher, Shams al-Din Khusrawshahi, but he did not receive a response. Mulla Muzaffar Hossein Kashani, who was contemporary with Mulla Sadra, asked him the same question, since it seems that the problem of the subsistence of the soul is apparently inconsistent with Mulla Sadra’s theory of corporeal origination. He provided a response to the question of Khwajah Nasir al-Din Tusi and Mulla Muzaffar on the basis of the fundamental principles of his own philosophy and defended the problem of the subsistence of the soul after its separation from the body.
Abollhasan Ghafari
Keywords : soul ، subsistence of the soul ، corporeal origination of the soul ، Khwajah Nasir al-Din Tusi ، Mulla Muzaffar Hossein Kashani ، Mulla Sadra ،
In Fayd Kashani’s view, t’awil (esoteric interpretation) is a strategy for attaining the innermost and depth of meaning. He believes that denying t’awil is a sign of superficiality. His writings, particularly his two books of ‘Ayn al-yaqin and Usul al-m‘arif and his Mizan al-qiyamah treatise, testify to the supreme place of ontology in discovering the secrets of religious teachings. Fayd’s research in the field of t’awil is based on his philosophical-gnostic thoughts. He conceives of ontology as a window through which one should view the vast spread of revealed teachings. The writer believes that the treatise of al-Insaf introduces Fayd’s methodology of t’awil. Moreover, it describes the process of the writer’s journey towards the truth. According to this gnostic philosopher, some of the conditions that are necessary for one’s attaining the knowledge of t’awil include recognizance of theoretical and practical wisdom, spiritual perfection, patience, and truth seeking.
Nafiseh Ahl Sarmadi
Keywords : t’awil ، ontology ، innermost ، patience ، anthropology ، Fayd Kashani ،
Obviously, all Islamic philosophers, affiliated with any of the three well-known philosophical schools, have been greatly influenced by Qur’anic teachings in the development of their philosophical thoughts. However, among them, Suhrawardi was the first Islamic philosopher who benefitted extensively from the Holy Qur’an in the development of his Illuminationist philosophy. His use of this heavenly Book is different from that of others both quantitatively and qualitatively (in terms of interpretation). He based many of his ideas, arguments, and judgments on the teachings of the Qur’an. Here, the authors have tried to briefly explain the impact of Qur’anic teachings on Suhrawardi’s Illuminationist philosophy with regard to the four categories of luminous wisdom, light of all lights, intellects, and the soul. This is because a detailed discussion of this topic demands sufficient time and extensive knowledge.
Qasim Pourhassan - Seyyed Mostafa Babaei
Keywords : Qur’anic verses ، Illuminationist philosophy ، luminous wisdom ، light of all lights ، soul ، intellects ، esoteric interpretation ، Suhrawardi ،

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