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No 94
Vol. 94 No. 24
2019
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In the view of some contemporary Sadrian philosophers (‘Allamah Tabataba’i and Murtada Mutahhari), at all stages of the emergence and acquisition of different types of knowledge for human beings, the soul’s presential knowledge is absolutely prior to any kind of acquired knowledge. In other words, any kind of acquired knowledge is realized for Man after the soul attains the presential knowledge of itself. Some contemporary Iranian thinkers believe in the opposite view and claim that the soul’s presential knowledge is the product of some types of acquired knowledge; nevertheless, a careful study of this view demonstrates that, firstly, the adduced arguments for the opposing standpoint is not free from fallacy and cannot prove the mentioned claim. Secondly, this view is in contrast to the necessary and sufficient conditions for the realization of presential knowledge. Accordingly, such a view cannot be confirmed.
Keywords : soul ، presential knowledge ، acquired knowledge ، priority and posteriority ، Sadrian philosophers ، contemporary thinkers ،
Culture, Government, Cultural Politics
Seyyed Mohammad Khamenei
Keywords : Culture ، Government ، Cultural Politics
Today the whatness of Man’s voluntary act, its explanation, and the range of their free will in the world of being is studied under the topic of “philosophy of act”. Muslim philosophers have presented some noteworthy innovations and solutions in this realm as well. In this tradition, supplication as a voluntary act is explored from two general aspects in both kalam and philosophy: its relationship with the Divine Will and its relationship with the necessity of the causal system. It was Ibn Sina who, for the first time, portrayed a framework for the problems related to this theme. However, some of his succeeding philosophers, such as Mir Damad, Mulla Sadra, Sabziwari, and ‘Allamah Tabataba’i, also made great contributions to the explanation and expansion of the realm of supplication through presenting a number of arguments and discussions. In this paper, the authors have examined the problem of supplication from the viewpoints of Ibn Sina, Mulla Sadra, and ‘Allamah Tabataba’i. A comparison of their views reveals that Ibn Sina has explained the problem of supplication within the causal system. He believes that each and every event is natural or voluntary at the level of affirmation, and natural, voluntary, or accidental at the level of demonstration. Accordingly, the difference between the “reason” and “cause” returns to the difference between the levels of affirmation and demonstration, and one cannot consider the reason and justification independent from the cause or clarification. While accepting the framework of Ibn Sina’s theory and considering supplication to be effective in the causal system, Mulla Sadra disagrees with him in certain respects. His explanation indicates that he considers a greater effect and range for the human voluntary act. Through believing in the gradation of existence, he advances two objections to Ibn Sina’s theory. When explaining the problem of supplication, Mulla Sadra refers to the gradation and union of the intellect and the intelligible; however, it is ‘Allamah Tabataba’i who provides a configuration for the expansion of the theory of the union of the intellect and intelligible when clarifying the concept of supplication, that is, explaining the relationship between the free will, the object of will, the will and, in the same vein, the relationship between the act, the agent, and the product. Through expanding Mulla Sadra’s view, ‘Allamah provides a more accurate explanation for supplication. Nevertheless, his view has been the target of criticism by some authorities.
Roohallah Daraei - Tuba Kermani
Keywords : philosophy of act ، Mulla Sadra ، Supplication ، ‘Allamah Tabataba’i ، Worship ، invocation ، causal system ، Ibn Sina ،
The relationship between the body and the soul is one of the complex issues in philosophy. The Cartesian and Platonic dualism is one of the solutions offered for this problem. Descartes and Plato believed that the soul and body are two different substances and enjoy their own particular domains and features. Contemporary philosophers of the mind have also introduced a number of views in order to resolve the problems of substantial dualism. The theories of behaviorism and the identity of the mind and body deny the substantive nature of the soul and employ the words “mind” and “mental states” instead of the word “soul” and maintain that mental states are the same behavioral and brain-related states. However, while acknowledging the problems of dualism, the behavioral approaches, and the standpoint of the identity of the mind and brain, the advocates of functionalism provide an impartial interpretation of the mind (its being abstract or concrete) and believe that mental states are the same functional states which perform certain functional roles based on mental input and output and other mental states. Islamic philosophers and mutikallimun have also tackled the enigma of the soul and body and Plato’s substantial dualism. Ibn Sina and Suhrawardi deny the priority of the soul to the body (Platonic theory) but consider the essence of the soul and body to be immaterial and corporeal, respectively. Most mutikallimun reject the idea of the soul as an immaterial and self-subsistent substance and view it as a delicate kind of body. In line with functionalists, Mulla Sadra was well aware of the problems associated with considering the soul as an immaterial or corporeal substance and argued that the essence of the soul is not purely immaterial or material; rather, it is initially corporeal and then becomes immaterial through trans-substantial motion. He also stated that, based on the shadowy true unity, the soul is an intermediate world inclusive of both materiality and immateriality and becomes material and immaterial based on the states of its grades. Although both functionalists and Mulla Sadra reject the mind’s (the soul in Mulla Sadra’s view) being purely immaterial or corporeal, Mulla Sadra provided a more accurate explanation of the body-soul relation in comparison to functionalists, who hold a physicalist view of the mind. This is because he does not limit being exclusively to nature.
Reza Safari Kandsari
Keywords : soul (mind) and body relation ، immateriality of the soul ، corporeality of the soul ، functionalism ، Mulla Sadra ، unity of the body and soul ،
Through a study of the concept of the Guardian and Imam in the view of Hakim Zunuzi, the present paper is intended to demonstrate that it is possible to prove the necessity mode of the existence of the intellect based on some of the principles of the theoretical school of Transcendent Philosophy, including the principles of the One, inferior possibility and, particularly, nobler possibility. Since the “guardian” enjoys the highest level of actual intellect and the faculty of stimulation, he can be matched with the level of the First Intellect as the second truth and the most perfect and closest of the substances of the realm of dominion to Almighty Truth. This level is, thus, true for the “guardian”. Moreover, unlike separate intellects, the kind of intellect which is known as “correspondent intellect” and “archetype” in the transcendent Illuminationist philosophy and as a supreme example of mustakfi existent attends to the training and administration of its inferiors because it enjoys an aspect of the divinity of Almighty Truth. An example of this kind of intellect can be observed in the human administrative lights and supreme souls, such as favorites of God and theologian philosophers. Through a study of the features and examples of this kind of intellect, the author concludes that, based on the philosophical analysis of some traditions, one can prepare the context for the matching of such features to favorites of God and, in Zunuzi’s words, introduce the white pillar of the divine Celestial Throne and universal intellect as the representative of this level. Finally, given the belief that the intellect is the noblest and the most favorite of all divine substances and the closest of them to God, it can be considered to be the spirit. Therefore, the guardian is the spirit and the rational soul who is open to the orders, rewards, and punishments of Almighty Truth.
Abdolreza Safari
Keywords : Guardian ، imam ، First Intellect ، mustakfi existent ، Transcendent Philosophy ، Hakim Zunuzi ،

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