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No 91
Vol. 91 No. 23
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In the Transcendent Philosophy, the basis of particular gradation is the return of the shared element to the distinguishing factor. This is a general rule and criterion for particular gradation, based on which at least three types of such gradation can be defined. In the first type, plurality dominates oneness so that all beings and plural things in the world merely share the aspect of being in existence. In the next type, oneness dominates plurality so that all the multiple beings of the world comprise the stages of a single being. The third type of particular gradation is midway between the other two types. Based on the particular gradation discussed by Aqa Ali Mudarres in the book of Bidayah al-hikam, oneness dominates plurality among possible multiple beings because all of them comprise the different grades of a single and absolute being. However, between the Almighty Necessary and the collection of possible multiple things, it is plurality which dominates oneness.
Seyyed Shahriyar Kamali Sabziwari
Keywords : particular gradation ، specific unity ، graded oneness ، possible graded oneness ، Aqa Ali Mudarres ، Bidayah al-hikam ،
Since Almighty God has created the human soul as a comprehensive example of all beings in the world, and also because the human soul rules and manages its realm similar to a powerful administrator and leader, this study, inspired by a philosophical approach to the soul, aims to revisit the patterns of the management of organizational behavior and supreme organizational acts. The reason is that one of the successful methods of portraying valid social structures is to benefit from the truth of the creation-centered fitrah (primordial nature). This paper explains the relationship between the soul and its faculties based on the psychological approaches of the Peripatetic and Transcendent schools of philosophy. Here, the writers clarify the theories of “conquer relation” and “gradation relation” and try to gain a new perspective of the relationship between the soul and its faculties as two models of management and leadership, called “delegated management” and “diffused management” and explain their features. Finally, they try to provide and explain a single model based on an integration of the mentioned models.
Seyyed Ehsan Rafiealavy - Mostafa Azizi Alavijeh
Keywords : soul ، faculties of the soul ، management ، delegated management ، diffused management ،
One of the useful views regarding the expansibility of meaning in the Qur’an is rooted in the theory of “coining words for spirits of meaning”. This view originates in a gnostic principle based on which the vertical levels of the meanings of words have a single spirit that applies to all referents in the real sense of the word. Through expanding sensible and material concepts to meta-gnostic meanings, the advocates of the principle of the spirit of meaning maintain that the features originated in the referents of words cannot affect the real meaning because the signified objects of words are general. Accordingly, the truth of words can be applied to all levels of meaning from the level of hidden truth to a lower level which is comprehensible to all. The followers of this theory consider “expanded concept” to be a level of word meaning without rejecting the common understanding of the lexical meanings of words. In this paper, the writers have examined the defects of the theory of the spirit of meaning through an accurate analysis of its nature and extracting its principles from the various interpretations provided by its advocates. The disagreement with predicating predicate adjectives on metaphoric expressions, concentration on objective affairs in word semantics, and lack of attention to new linguistic views are among the most important defects of this theory.
Abdollah Mirahmadi - Mona Amanipoor
Keywords : spirit of meaning ، word coinage ، expansibility of meaning ، semantics ، linguistics ، truth and metaphor ، Qur’an ،
In the philosophical tradition of Islamic philosophers, the discussion of the five-fold external senses takes place based on a particular criterion and order. Philosophers generally believe that the order of the senses from the lowest to the highest consists of touch, taste, smell, hearing, and sight, among which hearing and sight are subtler and nobler. Based on the principles of the Transcendent Philosophy, such as the trans-substantial motion, the given order develops an ontological and perfectional aspect, which is the reason why Mulla Sadra’s discussions of the soul in relation to the external senses generally enjoy an ontological nature. The ontological level of the first three senses in the given order is always fixed; nevertheless, regarding the ontological superiority of hearing and sight over each other, some pieces of evidence testify to the superiority of hearing over the other, and some others testify otherwise. In this paper, the writers have examined and analyzed the reasons behind the ontological order of the senses based on the Transcendent Philosophy. Moreover, given the particular attention paid to hearing and sight, they have evaluated the reasons adduced for the ontological superiority of these two senses.
Furugh al-Sadat Rahimpoor - Jamal Ahmadi
Keywords : external senses ، ontological ranking ، hearing ، sight ، Mulla Sadra ،
Ibn Sina culture
Keywords : Ibn Sina ، culture

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