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        1 - Editor's Note
        Seyyed Mohammad Khamenei
        اصل در انسانيت انسان، همان فرهنگ و انديشه» اوست و نهاد فرهنگ و معارف و اجزاء سازنده و پيراموني آن، همچون حكمت و علوم ديگر، در ميان بخشها و نهادهاي ديگر اجتماعي در حكم سنگ اصلي بناست، و همانگونه كه شخصيت و ارزش واقعي يك فرد را، نه با زر و ثروت و زور بلكه با سطح فرهنگ و ش Full Text
        اصل در انسانيت انسان، همان فرهنگ و انديشه» اوست و نهاد فرهنگ و معارف و اجزاء سازنده و پيراموني آن، همچون حكمت و علوم ديگر، در ميان بخشها و نهادهاي ديگر اجتماعي در حكم سنگ اصلي بناست، و همانگونه كه شخصيت و ارزش واقعي يك فرد را، نه با زر و ثروت و زور بلكه با سطح فرهنگ و شكل انديشه ـ و سپس دانش ـ او ميسنجند، ارزش واقعي جوامع متمدن و ملل نيز با فرهنگ و ارزشهاي ناشي از انديشة فلسفي و اخلاقي آنها ارزيابي ميشود. متأسفانه برغم فريادهايي كه دربارة زوال يا سير نزولي پژوهش و آفت علوم انساني و بويژه در بخش فلسفه و علوم عقلي در بيشتر محافل زده ميشود، همه ساله سهم اين حوزة مهم در بودجة كشور ناچيزتر ميگردد و فرياد عطش اين دشت كويرگونه و خشكسالي اين وادي تشنه، به گوش ملائكه موكّل بر آن نميرسد و تير دعاي باران اين جماعت فرهنگي و سربازان گمنام حكمت و دانش، به هدف اجابت نميخورد. فلسفه و حكمت در اين ميان ـ ‌يعني در ميان خانوادة فرهنگ و رشته‌هاي فراوان علم و فرزندخواندگان آن كه گاه بنام هنر، نسب خود را به فرهنگ ميرسانند‌ ـ از همه محرومتر و صداي آن از همه ضعيفتر و دست آن از همه كوتاهتر است. مقدار بودجه‌يي كه در كشور صرف تقويت و تغذية نهادهاي مربوط به آن ميشود، حتي كفاف حيات و جلوگيري از زوال آنها را نميدهد، چه رسد به رشد و ارتقاي آنها. دولت و بويژه مجلس شوراي اسلامي ـ‌كه ژرفتر و بي‌پيرايه‌تر به اهميت امور ميپردازد‌‌ـ بايد توجه داشته باشند كه: اولاً، در كنار علوم و فنون و هنرهاي وارداتي كه خزانه و امهات آن در غرب است، تنها فلسفه و علوم عقلي است كه سرماية تاريخي و ملّي ماست و دهها قرن در اين سرزمين باليده و شاخه‌هاي خود را به ملل همسايه فرستاده است و نقطة قوت و برتري ما در جهان در عرصة گفتگوي فرهنگها و مقايسة تاريخها و ملتها ميباشد. ثانياً، اگر سود و فايده را ملاك قرار دهيم و پاي مقايسه پيش آيد كه آيا فلسفه و حكمت و اخلاق براي جامعه مفيدتر است يا براي مثال موسيقي و فوتبال؟ مسلم است هرچه سود بيشتر برساند سزاوار سهم بيشتري است. اما بايد پرسيد كه آيا افراد جامعه با گذراندن وقت با اقسام هنر و ورزش، راه صحيح زيستن و خوشبخت زندگي كردن را مي‌آموزند يا با علوم عقلي كه پاسخگوي نيازها و پرسشهاي اصلي و فطري بشر ـ ‌از كودك تا بزرگسال ـ است؟ و كداميك بهتر ميتواند خط‌مشي درست براي كامروا و سعادتمند بودن را به وي بياموزد؟ و پيشگيري از جرم و جنايت و منع ارتكاب خلاف هنجارهاي اجتماعي و اخلاقي را ببار بياورد؟ ثالثاً، در صورتي كه همة اعضاي اين خانواده را در سودمندي برابر بدانيم، باز ملاك مهمتري در توزيع بودجة سالانه پيش روي ما قرار دارد كه بايستي معيار كار قرار گيرد؛ يعني بايد بررسي كرد كه فقدان كداميك از نهادهاي فعال جامعه، ضايعه ببار مي‌آورد و ضعف كدام بخش از بخشهاي مرزوق دولت و مجلس، ميتواند فرهنگ و استقلال فرهنگي ملت و كشور را به خطر بيندازد؟ بديهي است كه فقدان و نبود برخي از اقسام هنر و ورزش بهيچوجه ضايعه نيست و براي ملت و كشور هيچ خرابي‌يي ببار نمي‌آورد ـ اگر نگوييم كه برخي منافع محسوس هم دارد‌ ـ اما فقدان انديشه‌ها و روحهاي سالم در پناه منطق علمي و اخلاق و حكمت و اصول پرورشي، ميتواند ديگر اندامهاي اجتماع را نيز بيمار و عيبناك كند و به نهادهاي ديگر سياسي، اقتصادي، اجتماعي صدمه بزند و خط‌مشي سالم افراد جامعه را به سرگرداني در وادي از خودبيگانگي و جهل و نااميدي مبدل سازد يا مردمي مجرم و خاطي ببار آورد. اميدواريم ‌اكنون كه مرحله بررسي براي توزيع صحيح و عادلانه بودجه در دسترس نمايندگان مجلس شوراي اسلامي است، اين نكات مورد توجه قرار گيرد و حق نهاد مفيد و سازنده‌يي همچون حكمت متعالية اسلامي و علوم عقلي پيراموني آن با ترازوي انديشه و عدالت سنجيده و به آن برسد. Manuscript Document
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        2 - Revelation in Mullā Ṣadrā’s View
        Seyd Mohammad  Musavi Mohamad Taghi Rajaee
        Mullā Ṣadrā believes that, since a prophet’s duty is to transmit revelations to people and guide them, they must be expressed in detail within the framework of verbal propositions so that they are comprehensible and usable by people. The words comprising a revelation, s Full Text
        Mullā Ṣadrā believes that, since a prophet’s duty is to transmit revelations to people and guide them, they must be expressed in detail within the framework of verbal propositions so that they are comprehensible and usable by people. The words comprising a revelation, similar to their meanings, should have been descended from the intellectual world. When a revelation is sent, the prophet must ascend to higher worlds to receive it and, then, return to the natural world carrying the revelation. Sometimes the descent of revelation is accompanied with the sensual observation of the angel carrying it. In this case, the observation of the angel has occurred in the world of Ideas and the descent of the angel carrying revelation does not indicate separation from the station of divine proximity; rather, a small part of their existence is conceived by the prophet’s perceptive faculties. Manuscript Document
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        3 - Ontological Place of Divine Names in Theoretical Gnosis
        Reza  Safari Kandsari
        Gnostics believe that only the Truth exists, and multiple existents are His manifestations and determinations. However, while accepting the principle of the oneness of being, the question is what the place of names is in the philosophical system of gnostics, and, if the Full Text
        Gnostics believe that only the Truth exists, and multiple existents are His manifestations and determinations. However, while accepting the principle of the oneness of being, the question is what the place of names is in the philosophical system of gnostics, and, if they exist, what the quality of their existence is, and, if they do not exist and are non-existent, what the meaning of their non-existence is. Divine names mediate between the emergence of the Truth at the levels of invisibility and visibility. In the first determination (the first invisibility level), they are identical with the essence of the Truth; however, in the second determination, they experience cognitive appearance, and the relationship between the names and archetypes appears at the second invisibility level. At the level of visibility, the names grant external existence to archetypes based on their potentials, and existential relation (external entities and names of acts) appears. Nevertheless, the names themselves – since they indicate the appearance of existence – lack independent external existence and, rather, enjoy existential existence and external appearance based on manifestations (one side of the relation). Whenever manifestations possess the least potential for receiving objective appearance, the names (the other side of the relation) appear as well, and if there is no potency, the names refer to their own source (level of invisibility). In fact, names lack objective existence and exist through their effects. Manuscript Document
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        4 - Human Soul: A Supreme Example of God in the Transcendent Philosophy
        Mojtaba  Afsharpour Mohammad Mehdi  Gorjian Mohsen Qomi
        One of the aspects that has been referred to in the Transcendent Philosophy for attaining the knowledge of God through the knowledge of the soul is that the human soul is a supreme example of God. This means that God has created the human soul similar to Himself in term Full Text
        One of the aspects that has been referred to in the Transcendent Philosophy for attaining the knowledge of God through the knowledge of the soul is that the human soul is a supreme example of God. This means that God has created the human soul similar to Himself in terms of essence, attributes, and acts so that the knowledge of the soul could function as a means of attaining the knowledge of God in these three realms. However, it is noteworthy that God Almighty is pure from a like. Therefore, an example is different from a like. A careful study of Mullā Ṣadrā’s works reveals that he followed this theory seriously and tried his best to grant it a demonstrative nature. However, he never introduced it in a coherent and well-defined manner in a book or a chapter but dealt with its different dimensions in different chapters and works in relation to other discussions. Therefore, it is necessary to introduce this theory and the related interpretations in a coherent form. After some preliminary explanations regarding the Sadrian supreme example theory, this paper examines and analyzes the most important dimensions of the soul as an example of God and the related analyses in order to identify the most significant aspects of this feature of the human soul. Manuscript Document
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        5 - The Criteria for the Separation of the Truth from Mentally-Posited Values Based on ‘Allāmah Ṭabāṭabā’ī’s Works
        Hossein  Farzaneh
        Human perceptions can be divided into two real and mentally-posited groups, each with their own specific features and principles. The inappropriate combination of these two perceptions has resulted in some mistakes on the part of thinkers and, sometimes, has even result Full Text
        Human perceptions can be divided into two real and mentally-posited groups, each with their own specific features and principles. The inappropriate combination of these two perceptions has resulted in some mistakes on the part of thinkers and, sometimes, has even resulted in doubting the basic principles of intellection. This incorrect combination is rooted in the lack of a clear criterion for the separation of these two types of perception. In his quest for the parameters of the separation of the truth from mentally-posited entities in ‘Allāmah Ṭabāṭabā’ī’s works, the author has proposed six criteria in this paper and then analyzed and criticized them. Finally, he concludes that although none of the mentioned parameters can be an absolute criterion by itself for the separation of real and mentally-posited perceptions from each other, the collection of the assumptions originating in the simultaneous use of a combination of such criteria could create a high confidence level regarding this necessary separation. Manuscript Document
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        6 - Anthropological Explanation of Death in Mullā Ṣadrā’s two Systems of Graded Unity and Individual Unity of Existence
        Abdollah Salavati Fatemeh Kookaram
        This study discusses the problem of death based on Mullā Ṣadrā’s two systems of graded and individual unities of existence and intends to explain death relying on anthropological principles. The most important of such principles include Man’s multi-dimensional nature, o Full Text
        This study discusses the problem of death based on Mullā Ṣadrā’s two systems of graded and individual unities of existence and intends to explain death relying on anthropological principles. The most important of such principles include Man’s multi-dimensional nature, ontological gradedness, corporeal origination of the soul and its spiritual subsistence, the problem of the soul and its relationship with the body, human stations, and being the manifestation of divine names. Mullā Ṣadrā divides death into three natural, premature, and voluntary types. In his view, the soul plays an active and key role in death. The main question of the present study is what the principles of the anthropology of death are in Mullā Ṣadrā’s view. He believes that death is an ontological affair in the sense of the soul’s voluntary, forceful, or generative desertion of the world of sensibles. In Mullā Ṣadrā’s two philosophical systems, death has two different faces; in his system of graded unity, it means severing the relationship with the body in the light of ontological gradedness and, in the system of individual unity, it means cutting the relationship with a name and joining another name in the light of various manifestations. Manuscript Document
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        7 - Range of the Interpretations of Quiddative Concepts Based on the Principiality of Existence in the View of Contemporary Commentators of Sadrian Wisdom
        Rohollah Adineh Roghayeh Mosavi
        The principiality of existence and mentally-positedness of quiddity are the main bases of Mullā Ṣadrā’s philosophy and his particular theories. On the other hand, he has not provided a clear and accurate picture of these two theories in his philosophical system and has Full Text
        The principiality of existence and mentally-positedness of quiddity are the main bases of Mullā Ṣadrā’s philosophy and his particular theories. On the other hand, he has not provided a clear and accurate picture of these two theories in his philosophical system and has referred to quiddity using different terms. Each of the contemporary commentators of the Transcendent Philosophy have interpreted quiddity and existence in a way based on their own views and theoretical principles and have tried to predicate it on Mullā Ṣadrā’s theory. However, given the fundamental role of quiddity and quiddative concepts in gaining acquired knowledge, disagreement in the interpretation of quiddity will affect the quality of explaining acquired knowledge. Hence, following a descriptive-analytic method, the present study aims to provide a correct interpretation for quiddity from the viewpoint of contemporary commentators of Sadrian philosophy and, then, investigate whether our acquired knowledge of existents, which is attained through quiddative concepts, is positive or negative. Accordingly, the authors have examined and criticized such commentators’ interpretations of quiddity and the way it explains existence. A short answer here is that, apparently, based on the correct view, which belongs to Professor Javadi Amuli, quiddity is the manifestation of determined existence, and quiddative concepts speak of limited existence, which is clearly a positive rather than a negative and purifying statement. Manuscript Document
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        8 - A Study of Ibn Barrajān’s View of al-Ḥaqq al-Makhlūq bih
        Hamed  Nazarpour
        One of the gnostic expressions which is used in the discussion of God’s manifestations is al-ḥaqq al-makhlūq bih (the truth for which the world has been created). Ibn ‘Arabī believes that the origin of this expression is the works of Ibn Barrajān but does not provide an Full Text
        One of the gnostic expressions which is used in the discussion of God’s manifestations is al-ḥaqq al-makhlūq bih (the truth for which the world has been created). Ibn ‘Arabī believes that the origin of this expression is the works of Ibn Barrajān but does not provide any explanation regarding his view. Ibn Barrajān was an Andalusian gnostic and commentator who presented his views of al-ḥaqq al-makhlūq bih” in Sharḥ asmā’ Allāh al-ḥusnā, Tanbīh al-afhām, and Iḍah al-ḥikma. The present paper aims to explore the expression al-ḥaqq al-makhlūq bih in the view of Ibn Barrajan based on a documentary and descriptive-analytic method. The findings of the study demonstrate that Ibn Barrajān’s source of inspiration for creating this expression was the holy Qur’an. In his view, the main purpose behind the Qur’an’s invitation to thinking about the divine verses is attaining the truth for which the world has been created. He maintains that believing in al-ḥaqq al-makhlūq bih is necessary for all faithful people. He also holds that al-ḥaqq al-makhlūq bih is the manifestation of God. It is single; includes all manifestations of God in the world, in the hereafter, in the purgatory, in Man’s being, and in Qur’anic verses, and is also the origin of all creatures and the reason for their survival. According to Ibn Barrajān, al-ḥaqq al-makhlūq bih is a route which leads to God; it is traversed based on knowledge and practice and is the same direct path and guardian religion. He suggests that the method of learning about al-ḥaqq al-makhlūq bih entails thinking about and deliberating over divine verses along with faith and piety. The most important consequences of the knowledge of al-ḥaqq al-makhlūq bih include sensing the presence of God, learning about heavenly existents, acquiring wisdom, and acting upon divine orders. Manuscript Document