• XML

    isc pubmed crossref medra doaj
  • List of Articles


      • Open Access Article

        1 - Editor's Note
        S. Mohammad Khamenei
        واژة «ارزش» يكي از واژه‌هاي عميق و پردامنة معنايي و فرهنگي است و آنرا ميتوان به دو دسته: «ارزشهاي واقعي» و «ارزشهاي موهوم» تقسيم كرد. ارزشهاي «واقعي» اموري هستند كه سراسر خير و فايده، و بدون زيان و آسيب باشند. در تعريفي ديگر، ارزشهاي واقعي چيزهايي هستند كه فطرت و وجدان More
        واژة «ارزش» يكي از واژه‌هاي عميق و پردامنة معنايي و فرهنگي است و آنرا ميتوان به دو دسته: «ارزشهاي واقعي» و «ارزشهاي موهوم» تقسيم كرد. ارزشهاي «واقعي» اموري هستند كه سراسر خير و فايده، و بدون زيان و آسيب باشند. در تعريفي ديگر، ارزشهاي واقعي چيزهايي هستند كه فطرت و وجدان ناب بشر و عقل انسان، آن را خير محض و مفيد براي جامعه و فرد و وسيله‌يي براي تأمين زندگي سعادتمندانه و امن و آسايش و هماهنگ با نظام احسن آفرينش براي بشر، بداند. نقطه برابر آن، «ارزشهاي موهوم» و خيالي هستند كه مردم جاهل و بيفرهنگ از آن براي سرگرمي و از دست‌دادن عمر گرانبها استفاده ميكنند و گاهي سبب هرزگي و فساد اخلاق جوانان ميشود. ارزشهاي موهوم گاهي بدست سياست و جهانخواران ضد بشر ايجاد و تبليغ ميشود و از آن براي دور كردن مردم از ارزشهاي واقعي و خير و مصلحت خود و جامعه، و سوق آنان به هرزگي و شهوتراني بهره ميگيرند؛ مانند سينما و هنر دروغين بازيگري يا فوتبال حرفه‌يي. فوتبال حرفه‌يي ـ‌كه برخلاف ورزشهاي بومي و ايراني‌ـ فاقد بيشتر مزاياي ارزشهاي واقعي است، در نظام سابق شاهنشاهي به كشور وارد شد و دولتها از آن براي سرگرم‌كردن و دور كردن مردم از مفاسد و مشكلات سياسي و اجتماعي كشور، بهره ميگرفتند و آن را تشويق و بودجه‌هاي كلاني از جيب مردم فقير كشور را براي آن ميپرداختند، كه متأسفانه اين وضع هنوز هم ادامه دارد. ورزش در جاي خود و بسهم خود، كاري پسنديده و مفيد و حكيمانه است، اما بشرط آنكه با اين بهانه و بنام ورزش واقعي، بيت‌المال ملت فقير را بدست اسراف و اتلاف نسپارند و از جمله، دستمزدها و هزينه‌هاي ريالي و ارزي كلان به اين و آن، از جمله مربيان خارجي، نپردازند، كه گفته‌اند: «حيف از طلا كه خرج مُطّلا كند كسي». اين در حالي است كه مؤسسات علمي و پژوهشي ـ‌ و بيشتر از همه مراكز فلسفي و منطقي ـ كمترين سهم را در فصل بودجه‌هاي فرهنگي دارند، كه اين مصداق همان «تبعيض ناروا»ست كه در اصل سوم قانون اساسي آمده و منع شده است؛ و نقض عدالت اجتماعي است. آسيب ديگري كه در دوران جديد به فوتبال حرفه‌يي افزوده شده، بهره‌گيري دشمنان نظام اسلامي و سرمايه‌گذاران براي براندازي و نابودي كشور، از چهره‌هاي فوتبال است كه پس از آنكه برخي افراد پوچ و فاقد ارزشهاي اجتماعي را بدست رسانه‌ملي به شهرت رساندند و الگوسازي از آنان براي جوانان جاهل انجام شد، از آنان براي تشويق افكار عمومي برضد نظام و انقلاب و رهبري بهره ميگيرند و از آنان الگو و مرشد سياسي ميسازند و سخنان ياوه آنها را دستورالعمل مردم هوشمند و آگاه دشمن‌‌شناس ايران ميشمارند. مديران و دلسوزان نظام اسلامي و انقلابي ايران موظفند در اين عدم موازنة ارزشهاي اجتماعي و جايگاه غيرمعقول فوتبال حرفه‌يي و بازاري، و بپاس ارزشهاي واقعي خداپسند، راهي منطقي و معقول را در پيش گيرند و چاره‌يي عاجل بينديشند. Manuscript profile
      • Open Access Article

        2 - Ontology of the Spirit of Meaning in the Holy Qur’ān in Mullā Ṣadrā’s View and its Impact on the Discussion of the Quality of Coining Words
        Maryam  Kashefi Atiyeh  Zandieh
        The principle of “coining words for the spirit of meaning in the Holy Qur’ān” in Mullā Ṣadrā’s works is closely related to his philosophy. Therefore, considering the Sadrian ontology as the basis, one can learn about the ontological applications of the meanings of words More
        The principle of “coining words for the spirit of meaning in the Holy Qur’ān” in Mullā Ṣadrā’s works is closely related to his philosophy. Therefore, considering the Sadrian ontology as the basis, one can learn about the ontological applications of the meanings of words and, thus, the quality of attaining the knowledge of them. In Mullā Ṣadrā’s view, the world, the Qur’ān, and the holy prophetic existence are three dimensions of the world that share a single and simple existence at the level of their “unfolded existence”, “immediate divine word”, and “Mohammedan truth”. They have dispersed at the level of the lower kingdom and are manifested in the form of the world of particular Ideas, the verbal Qur’ān, and the existence of the Holy Prophet (ṣ), respectively, and then descend to the world of matter. Mullā Ṣadrā believes that each lower level is an example of a higher level, and words are not an exception to this rule. In order to access the highest level of divine words, one should employ the principle of coining words for different types of meanings (absolute and general). Mullā Ṣadrā’s definition of spirit of meaning conforms with his definition of the natural universal and Platonic Ideas. The application and generalizability of the spirit of meaning in comparison to the natural universal originates in the limitedness of quiddity, while, in comparison to Platonic universals, it originates in existential amplitude. A comparison of the spirit of meaning and natural universals indicates that coinage of words is a human phenomenon, and the criterion for coining each word is the truth. Manuscript profile
      • Open Access Article

        3 - Circularity of the Definitions of Nature and Truth of Time in Ibn Sīnā’s View
        Hamid  Shahriari
        Ibn Sīnā has provided two definitions for time, which Khwājah Naṣīr al-Dīn Ṭūsī believes to be circular. The first definition has appeared in Ibn Sīnā’s al-Ishārāt and introduces time as incompatible priority and posteriority. Some philosophers, such as Āqā Ḥussayn Khān More
        Ibn Sīnā has provided two definitions for time, which Khwājah Naṣīr al-Dīn Ṭūsī believes to be circular. The first definition has appeared in Ibn Sīnā’s al-Ishārāt and introduces time as incompatible priority and posteriority. Some philosophers, such as Āqā Ḥussayn Khānsārī, believe that the circular nature of Ibn Sīnā’s definition of time in this book poses no problem because the concept of time is an axiom, and the existence of circularity in the definition of an axiom is natural. His other definition has been given in al-Shifā. Here, the nature of time is defined in the sense of a measure of motion as divided into prior and posterior components. In this definition, time contains disjunctive quantity (time as the number of motion) in addition to continuous quantity (time as amount of motion). The present paper aims to provide a clear picture of the definition of the nature of time in Ibn Sīnā’s view in his al-Ishārāt and al-Shifā in al-Ṭabi’iyyāt chapter. Following an analytic comparative study of Ibn Sīnā’s works, the author concludes that Khwājah Naṣīr al-Dīn Ṭūsī’s perception of Ibn Sīnā’s definitions of the nature of time were not inconsistent and, rather, he intended to provide another analysis of the truth of time. Manuscript profile
      • Open Access Article

        4 - A Comparative Study of the Views of Mullā Ṣadrā and ‘Allāmah Ṭabāṭabā’ī Regarding Ambiguous Verses in the Qur’an
        Davood  Saemi
        According to Mullā Ṣadrā and ‘Allāmah Ṭabāṭabā’ī, Qur’anic verses enjoy both exoteric and esoteric meanings. When dealing with ambiguous verses, one must focus on their exoteric meanings and not to ignore them. In the view of both philosophers, the understanding of ambi More
        According to Mullā Ṣadrā and ‘Allāmah Ṭabāṭabā’ī, Qur’anic verses enjoy both exoteric and esoteric meanings. When dealing with ambiguous verses, one must focus on their exoteric meanings and not to ignore them. In the view of both philosophers, the understanding of ambiguous or metaphorical verses is relative and depends on individuals’ virtues and level of knowledge. They believe that knowledgeable people know the different meanings of ambiguous verses and, in fact, do not see any ambiguity there. However, based on the theory of specific oneness, Mullā Ṣadrā contends that all levels of being, from the highest to the lowest, enjoy existential hierarchy. Therefore, he maintains that, without needing to interpret ambiguous verses or the idea of incarnation regarding the essence of the Almighty, one can maintain the exoteric meaning of the verses based on the philosophical-gnostic principles of the specific oneness of being and interpret the meanings of ambiguous verses based on their surface meanings. In this way, the word “ambiguous” is semantically expanded. Nevertheless, ‘Allāmah Ṭabāṭabā’ī believes in referring ambiguities to clear definitions and interprets ambiguous verses based on clear ones. He acknowledges the possibility of interpretation of all Qur’anic verses, whether ambiguous and straight forward, and states that all ambiguous verses can be clarified by referring to unambiguous ones. In this study, the author sides with Mullā Ṣadrā’s view in comparison to ‘Allāmah Ṭabāṭabā’ī’s because he finds it of a more solid and principled basis. Manuscript profile
      • Open Access Article

        5 - The Reasons Behind Lack of Moral Commitment in Mullā Ṣadrā’s View:Weakness of Belief, Desire, and Will Power
        Mehdi Zamani
        In the view of the Transcendent Philosophy, knowledge, love, kindness, desire, and free will, similar to existence, exist at various levels in all existents, including in Man’s voluntary acts. Lack of moral commitment results from one of the following three factors: 1) More
        In the view of the Transcendent Philosophy, knowledge, love, kindness, desire, and free will, similar to existence, exist at various levels in all existents, including in Man’s voluntary acts. Lack of moral commitment results from one of the following three factors: 1) weakness of moral beliefs (lack of perfect certainty and being heedless of existing beliefs); 2) weakness of desire (dominance of whimsical desires and forces and wrath over rational and moral enthusiasm), and 3) weakness of will power (weakness in making decisions and removing obstacles to the desired aim). Accordingly, moral commitment is realized through: 1) attaining the level of certainly and notifying others; 2) intensifying enthusiasm to the level of intellectual desire and delight, and 3) strengthening will power to make the right decision. Given the graded structure of the principles of voluntary act and the promotion and strengthening of the three levels of belief, desire, and will can consolidate the relationship among them and the realization of act will bring them closer to necessity. Manuscript profile
      • Open Access Article

        6 - Manifestation of Sadrian Philosophy in Imam Khomeini’s Glosses on Qayṣarī’s Introduction
        Gholamreza Hosseinpour
        The fourth chapter of Qayṣarī’s Introduction to Ibn ‘Arabī’s Fuṣūṣ al-ḥikam discusses substances and accidents following a gnostic approach and is mainly intended to explain the merciful soul. However, there is also an extensive discussion of gnostics’ merciful soul usi More
        The fourth chapter of Qayṣarī’s Introduction to Ibn ‘Arabī’s Fuṣūṣ al-ḥikam discusses substances and accidents following a gnostic approach and is mainly intended to explain the merciful soul. However, there is also an extensive discussion of gnostics’ merciful soul using a philosophical language. Imam Khomeini has criticized Qayṣarī’s explanation in a commentary based on the Transcendent Philosophy. At the end of the same chapter, Qayṣarī has mentioned some points about the meaning of individuation and its types. In another commentary, Imam Khomeini has provided an accurate explanation of different types of individuation using a gnostic language. This meaning of individuation and its types as discussed by Qayṣarī has been almost completely propounded in the third chapter of the fourth level of general affairs in al-Asfār, which reflects the great influence of Ibn ‘Arabī’s gnostic tradition, in general, and Qayṣarī’s Introduction, in particular, on Mullā Ṣadrā’s philosophy. In Qayṣarī’s view, accidents must function as the differentia of substances while, in the view of Mullā Ṣadrā and, following him, Imam Khomeini, Substance is the differentia of substance and not accident. Qayṣarī believes that sometimes individuation is the same as essence and sometimes an addition to it. Nevertheless, Imam Khomeini maintains that individuation does not essentially apply to the essence of Almighty Truth because it is among the effects of attributive manifestations. However, what enjoys the oneness of all individuations is the supreme name and perfect Man. The main purpose of this paper is to provide an accurate explanation, analysis, and criticism of Qayṣarī’s Introduction and Imam Khomeini’s commentary on this work. Imam Khomeini has criticized Qayṣarī in one commentary based on the Sadrian philosophy and, in another one, has discussed his own standpoints based on, in fact, a part of al-Asfār. Manuscript profile
      • Open Access Article

        7 - Prerequisites and Features of Transcendent Criminal Politics
        Mohammad Mirzaei Iman Amini
        Criminal policy entails scientific planning and practical prudence in dealing with criminal phenomena. Since it is related to criminal acts and events, it is influenced by the existing norms and values in society and must be organized accordingly. In a society or system More
        Criminal policy entails scientific planning and practical prudence in dealing with criminal phenomena. Since it is related to criminal acts and events, it is influenced by the existing norms and values in society and must be organized accordingly. In a society or system in which religious ideologies and values are dominant, one cannot expect the necessary efficiency from imported policies or reports rooted in the principles accepted in their sources of origin. Therefore, it is of great importance to develop a model of criminal policy that conforms to the prevalent principles and values in the target society. Transcendent criminal policy is theoretically rooted in Mullā Ṣadrā’s Transcendent Philosophy. This model, in addition to its inclusiveness regarding the provision of material and worldly advantages, unlike the common criminal policies, enjoys some metaphysical and spiritual dimensions that conform to Islamic religious beliefs and teachings and common fiṭrī (intrinsic) and human features. The ultimate goal of this policy is to enhance the luminous development of individuals and society and, at best, provide for Man’s happiness, and guide them on their path to gaining proximity to God. The present paper, similar to an Introduction, aims to explain the features and elements of this model based on the existing laws in the country. Manuscript profile
      • Open Access Article

        8 - A Critical Evaluation of Descartes’ Theory of Animal Mind Based on Sadrian Philosophy
        Armin Mansouri Habibullah Danesh Shahraki zahra khazaie
        Immaterial spiritual life for animals and their possession of mental capabilities have always been a controversial topic for debate among philosophers. The existence of certain similarities between animals and human beings, irrespective of all their differences, has mad More
        Immaterial spiritual life for animals and their possession of mental capabilities have always been a controversial topic for debate among philosophers. The existence of certain similarities between animals and human beings, irrespective of all their differences, has made it difficult to provide an accurate explanation of the quality of animal life. Given his belief in the existence of two corporeal and immaterial intellectual substances for human beings, Descartes negates the existence of thought and intellection in animals for three reasons: lack of language, lack of creativity, and lack of awareness in animals. In other words, he only accepts the existence of corporeal life for animals and, thus, views animals as complex machines that lack mental life. This idea of Descartes is known as the “animal machine” notion. However, Mullā Ṣadrā analyzes animals in relation to the three material, Ideal, and intellectual levels of the world. Accordingly, he believes in the ideal immateriality of animal souls and explains mindfulness at the animal level based on this belief. Descartes’ animal machine hypothesis and the related three reasons are rejected based on the Ideal immateriality that Mullā Ṣadrā proves for animal souls. Manuscript profile
      • Open Access Article

        9 - حكمت، حكومت، ولا‌يت (گزارشي از بيست و ششمين همايش بزرگداشت حكيم صدرالمتألهين)
        S. Mohammad Khamenei
        بيست و ششمين همايش از سلسله همايشهاي بزرگداشت حكيم ملاصدرا با موضوع «حكمت، حكومت، ولايت» در خردادماه 1401 برگزار گرديد.بنياد حكمت اسلامي صدرا، برسم ساليان گـذشته و راستـاي تحقق اهـداف علمي خـود و تبيين حكمت متعاليه اسـلامي ‌ايـراني در حوزه» مـوضـوعات عملي، بيست و ششمين More
        بيست و ششمين همايش از سلسله همايشهاي بزرگداشت حكيم ملاصدرا با موضوع «حكمت، حكومت، ولايت» در خردادماه 1401 برگزار گرديد.بنياد حكمت اسلامي صدرا، برسم ساليان گـذشته و راستـاي تحقق اهـداف علمي خـود و تبيين حكمت متعاليه اسـلامي ‌ايـراني در حوزه» مـوضـوعات عملي، بيست و ششمين همايش ملي بزرگداشت حكمي ملاصدرا را بمنظور بازخواني بايسته‌هاي حكومت شايسته، به موضوع «حكمت، حكومت، ولايت» اختصاص دارد. پس از تعيين موضوع و استخراج سرفصلهاي و زيرموضوعات همايش، فراخوان مقاله عمومي همايش در تاريخ 18 بهمن 1400 اعلان گرديد. Manuscript profile