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  • List of Articles


      • Open Access Article

        1 - Mulla Sadra’s View of Time in the Hereafter
        Hadi  Jafary Furugh al-Sadat  Rahimpoor
        The attention to the specific features of the Hereafter, such as time, and its comparison with worldly conditions can be witnessed in many of Mulla Sadra’s works. Given the presupposition that corporeal resurrection and the existence of other-worldly body are necessary More
        The attention to the specific features of the Hereafter, such as time, and its comparison with worldly conditions can be witnessed in many of Mulla Sadra’s works. Given the presupposition that corporeal resurrection and the existence of other-worldly body are necessary in the Transcendent Philosophy, the question is whether time also exists in the Hereafter. If the answer is yes, what are its qualities and quantities, and how does it differ from worldly time? The present paper is intended to provide some responses to such questions about time and concludes that the existence of a kind of time which matches the Hereafter and the other-worldly corporeal existence is necessary for believing in corporeal resurrection. This kind of time enjoys a more perfect and intensive level of the worldly existence of time and possesses some other-worldly features such as the relativity of feeling the passage of time, influence of the extent and level of individual’s immateriality in the slowness or speed of the passage of time during other-worldly events, and correspondence of the perception of passage of time with the domination of angelic aspect over each individual (in the course of worldly life). Manuscript profile
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        2 - An Epistemological-Ontological Approach to the Voluntary Growth and Training of “Personality” Based on Mulla Sadra’s Philosophy
        Tooba  La’l Sahebi Mohammad Kazem Elmi Soola
        “I” or “self” is intertwined with self-consciousness in Sadrian philosophy. The emergence of “I” begins with developing an awareness of the self and then develops, grows, and attains different levels based on the same awareness. In this paper, the writers aim to explore More
        “I” or “self” is intertwined with self-consciousness in Sadrian philosophy. The emergence of “I” begins with developing an awareness of the self and then develops, grows, and attains different levels based on the same awareness. In this paper, the writers aim to explore the growth of “I” or “personality” based on Mulla Sadra’s philosophical principles. In its technical sense, “personality”, which is created in the light of training and other influential factors, is formed in the domain of the transcendent and grown “I”. This is because “I”, from the very beginning, is an individual and a particular ontological identity. However, personality, which mainly represents an individual’s voluntary attributes and features, appears at specific stages of a person’s process of development and correct intellectual education. Following a specific analytic method, the present paper examines the process of appropriate growth, which mainly takes place after puberty. Manuscript profile
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        3 - A Study of Qaysari’s View of the Reality of Gnostic Time
        Hassan  Moradi mahmoud saidi
        Qaysari was one of the most prominent commentators of Ibn Arabi’s school. He also developed a specific theory about time based on gnostic principles. His view in this regard consists of some sections: a criticism of philosophical theories, particularly, those of Aristot More
        Qaysari was one of the most prominent commentators of Ibn Arabi’s school. He also developed a specific theory about time based on gnostic principles. His view in this regard consists of some sections: a criticism of philosophical theories, particularly, those of Aristotle and Ibn Sina; gnostic interpretation of certain philosophical theories, and an explanation of the reality of time and its divisions based on gnostic principles. However, there are some problems with Qaysari’s objections to Ibn Sina’s view and his gnostic interpretations of some philosophical theories. The most important problem of his theory concerns his hadith-based proofs about the emergence of time through resorting to al-dahr (Perpetual Duration), which is one of God’s names. This is because the hadiths referred to by Qaysari are not valid enough and cannot be used to demonstrate his claim. Accordingly, it can be said that time emerges by resorting to God’s name of al-muqaddar (Determiner), and its emergence at different levels creates the divine day and night. Manuscript profile
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        4 - The Sirat in Sadrian Philosophy
        Aireza Asadi
        Given the various narrations from the Infallible Imams (a), the Sirat (path) is one of the stations of the Hereafter. However, the differences between the narrations in this regard have led to various interpretations of the concept of the Sirat and, thus, each prominent More
        Given the various narrations from the Infallible Imams (a), the Sirat (path) is one of the stations of the Hereafter. However, the differences between the narrations in this regard have led to various interpretations of the concept of the Sirat and, thus, each prominent Islamic thinker has provided a specific explanation for it. As a philosopher and commentator of the Holy Qur’an, Mulla Sadra has tried to present a rational explanation for this theorem based on his own particular philosophical principles and the narrations from Infallible Imams (a). He believes that the Hereafter is the innermost of the world and, therefore, he considers the Sirat (the bridge over Hell leading to Paradise) to be the manifestation and embodiment of Man’s worldly path and its innermost. Following a descriptive-analytic method, this paper evaluates the Sadrian explanation of the Sirat based on religious teachings and tries to demonstrate its consistency with Qur’anic verses and narrations. At the same time, the writer elaborates on and extends Mulla Sadra’s view of the truth of the Sirat and the related problems, such as the functions and features of the Sirat, embodiment of the Sirat in the Hereafter, the relationship between the Sirat and the Infallible Imams (a) and divine favorites of God, the criterion for the extent and limits of the Sirat, and also makes a short reference to the related points in Qur’anic verses and narrations. Manuscript profile
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        5 - Foreword
        Seyyed Mohammad Khamenei
        Arbaein Imam Hosein philosophy of history
        Arbaein Imam Hosein philosophy of history Manuscript profile
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        6 - A Study of the Views of Two Commentators (Meybodi and Mulla Sadra) of Hidayah al-Hikmah Concerning the First Emanated
        Maqsud  Mohammadi Mehdi  Najafiafra
        Both Qadi Kamal al-Din Meybodi and Mulla Sadra have written comments on the chapters of Tabi‘iyyat and Ilahiyyat of Abhari’s Hidayah al-hikmah and have often provided their own critical views of the existing ideas regarding the discussed problems, one of which is the pr More
        Both Qadi Kamal al-Din Meybodi and Mulla Sadra have written comments on the chapters of Tabi‘iyyat and Ilahiyyat of Abhari’s Hidayah al-hikmah and have often provided their own critical views of the existing ideas regarding the discussed problems, one of which is the problem of the first emanated. Meybodi has objected to considering the “intellect” as the first emanated relying on “the mentally-posited (negations and additions) modes as the origins of the emanation of multiple things from Almighty Necessary” and the “emanation of acts from the soul without the mediation of the body”. He believes that the soul can be directly emanated from the first origin. When rejecting Meybodi’s reasoning, Mulla Sadra states, “Initially, the realization of negations, similar to additions, regarding the truth of negative propositions is posterior to the realization of Almighty Necessary”, and “Secondly, the soul, as such, is accompanied by weakness and strength and needs the body in activity and disposition.” This view of Mulla Sadra about the soul’s not being qualified for being the first emanated is more consistent with the approach and principles of the Transcendent Philosophy as to the soul’s being “corporeally originated and spiritually subsistent” than with the approach and principles of the Peripatetic philosophy as to the soul’s being “spiritually originated and spiritually subsistent.” Manuscript profile
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        7 - Seyyed Hayadr Amuli’s Response to the Paradox of Non-Existence and Affirmation of the Loci of Manifestations in the Hadith of Truth
        Mohsen  Habibi Ali  Yazdani
        The “Hadith of Truth”, which Kumayl has narrated from Imam Ali (a), contains some sublime points, and on which some prominent figures such as Seyyed Haydar Amuli have written commentaries. When commenting on the first part of the hadith, “al-haqiqah …”, Amuli mentions t More
        The “Hadith of Truth”, which Kumayl has narrated from Imam Ali (a), contains some sublime points, and on which some prominent figures such as Seyyed Haydar Amuli have written commentaries. When commenting on the first part of the hadith, “al-haqiqah …”, Amuli mentions that, according to this hadith, Almighty Truth is manifested in the forms of the loci of manifestations, which are, nevertheless, non-existent. This statement appears paradoxical and, thus, Seyyed Haydar has tried to resolve it. In his view, manifestations and entities are fixed in their non-existence and appear in the name of “divine light”, which is the same existence of Almighty Truth. They are permanently in non-existence, and it is, in fact, the name of the divinely manifested that grants them existence at each moment. Otherwise, if they enjoy continuous existence, granting existence to them would mean the attainment of what they have already attained. In response to this paradoxical affair, Amuli benefits from the allegory of the sea and the wave. He explains that the sea appears in the form of the wave; hence, the wave exists in one respect and does not exist in another one. In this way, Seyyed Haydar tries to remove the paradox involved in the first section of the hadith. Manuscript profile
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        8 - Different Types of Intellect in Mulla Hadi Sabziwari’s View
        Seyyed Mohammad  Hosseini Nik Seyyed Hashem  Golestani Fathali  Akbari
        There are several different interpretations of the intellect, and a number of different duties, types, and levels have been attributed to it in conformity with each interpretation. Among them, reference can be made to fitri intellect, theoretical intellect, practical in More
        There are several different interpretations of the intellect, and a number of different duties, types, and levels have been attributed to it in conformity with each interpretation. Among them, reference can be made to fitri intellect, theoretical intellect, practical intellect, universal intellect, active intellect, basis for obligation, etc. In the same vein, gnostics and sufis have even referred to obligation and escape from the intellect. In this paper, following an analytic-descriptive method and based on a new ontological and epistemological division, the writers have tried to examine the different types of the intellect from the viewpoint of Mulla Hadi Sabziwari. In the ontology of the intellect, this concept is considered as a level of existence or an existent which is discussed in the framework of universal intellects, particular intellects, and the ten-fold intellects. Moreover, the relationships and differences between them are explained therein. From an epistemological approach, the intellect is viewed as Man’s faculty of perception. The writers also explore the natural intellect, empirical intellect, theoretical intellect, and practical intellect and their levels, the simple intellect, and the differentiated intellect alongside the epistemology of the intellect. The findings of this study indicate that, when explaining the different types of the intellect, we sometimes deal with the human intellect (levels of the rational souls, particular intellect, or livelihood intellect) and sometimes with non-human intellects (universal separate intellects) and, since the ascended and descended intellects are two levels of the same species, they connect with each other in the arches of ascent and descent. The findings also reveal that the intellect which gnostics usually reproach is the imperfect particular intellect, which is under the influence of fanciful thoughts, and it is the habitual and natural intellect which is the criterion for obligation. Manuscript profile