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      • Open Access Article

        1 - From Wisdom to Functionalism: A New Analysis of the Nature of Mullā Ṣadrā’s Philosophical Paradigm
        Hassan Rahbar Hamid  Eskandari
        The nature of Mullā Ṣadrā’s philosophical paradigm as a comprehensive system of philosophy has always been investigated by researchers in related fields. So far, eight views have been proposed in this regard; some of them consider Mullā Ṣadrā’s school to be a philosophi More
        The nature of Mullā Ṣadrā’s philosophical paradigm as a comprehensive system of philosophy has always been investigated by researchers in related fields. So far, eight views have been proposed in this regard; some of them consider Mullā Ṣadrā’s school to be a philosophical one; some others view it as a gnostic one, while others attribute a kalāmī nature to it. Nevertheless, his words and writings contradict these views. He mainly prefers to call his system of thoughts “wisdom”, which means the knowledge of God and His attributes and acts based on a mixed kalāmī-gnostic method. However, the writer believes that wisdom has no independent identity distinguishing it from philosophy, kalām, and gnosis and cannot be deemed as an independent school. Accordingly, in order to provide an accurate explanation of his system of thoughts, in addition to internal and content-based analyses, one should observe the external features of the world Mullā Ṣadrā lived in. Hence, from an external perspective, it apparently follows “consensus-creating functionalism”; that is, his school seeks to create functional unity among the three systems of thought. From an external perspective, it follows an anthropological life-course approach; in other words, one should consider the various philosophical, social, and political conditions of his time in explaining the discussions, problems, and methods embedded in his system of thinking. Accordingly, the writer believes that three points should be considered in adopting an optimal approach to examining the Sadrian system of thought: the distinction between the truths about the intellect and the truths about faith, omission of what is inconsistent with philosophical method, and distinguishing the borderlines of intellect from those of narration and gnosis. In this paper, while presenting Mullā Ṣadrā’s view of his own school, it has been tried to clarify Sadrian thoughts based on their internal content and external conditions in order to provide a new analysis of his thought system. Manuscript profile
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        2 - Place of Act in Man’s Existence in Mullā Ṣadrā
        Fateme Soleimani Darrebaghi
        One of the important problems in the field of anthropology is the place of “act” in Man’s existence and its role in attaining perfection. In Mullā Ṣadrā’s view, when a person performs an act, its truth is developed inside their soul so that thoughts and beliefs function More
        One of the important problems in the field of anthropology is the place of “act” in Man’s existence and its role in attaining perfection. In Mullā Ṣadrā’s view, when a person performs an act, its truth is developed inside their soul so that thoughts and beliefs function as origins of different tendencies and feelings in human beings. Therefore, external acts are manifestations of human thoughts, intentions, feelings, and tendencies; they do not directly affect the formation of the truth of human beings but only function as the manifestation of the truth of the human soul. In this way, the truth and inner nature of act is identical with soulish forms and habits, which in the hereafter create the Ideal and otherworldly body. In fact, human beings represent themselves in the outside world through their acts. Hence, Mullā Ṣadrā rejects the idea that act is the cause of the emergence of states and attributes in the soul and, in case of repetition, results in the development of soulish habits. He, rather, believes that act is the product of human states and tendencies and merely plays the role of an intermediary between the human soul and the external material world. However, acts indirectly affect the formation of new thoughts and, as a result, new emotions and dispositions. Manuscript profile
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        3 - A Study of Mudarres Zunūzī’s View of the Theory of Interrupting the Divine Punishment based on the Ideas of Ibn ‘Arabī and Mullā Ṣadrā
        Hamidreza  Khademi Reza Hesari
        The eternity of divine punishment is among the important eschatological problems and discussions in philosophy and gnosis. Ibn ‘Arabī and Mullā Ṣadrā’s scrutiny and analysis of this problem attracted the attention of several Muslim thinkers to this subject in later time More
        The eternity of divine punishment is among the important eschatological problems and discussions in philosophy and gnosis. Ibn ‘Arabī and Mullā Ṣadrā’s scrutiny and analysis of this problem attracted the attention of several Muslim thinkers to this subject in later times. Among them, Āqā ‘Alī Mudarres Zunūzī was one of the advocates of the theory of sinners’ eternal punishment in hell. In his glosses on al-Asfār, he adduced three arguments for this theory including the direct reference of some Qur’anīc verses to the eternity of punishment, the absence of any defense against divine punishment, and the concomitance of Man’s free will with eternal punishment. Zunūzī does not agree with the ḥadīth that Mullā Ṣadrā cites in order to demonstrate the interruption of punishment. However, in this paper the authors demonstrate that his criticism of Mullā Ṣadrā’s view is unfounded. Therefore, it can be said that the arguments adduced by some philosophers and gnostics in defense of the interruption of punishment are complete and can rationally justify this problem. Manuscript profile
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        4 - Criteria for Muqarrabūn in Mullā Ṣadrā’s Philosophical Works and Commentaries
        Fatemeh Sadeqzadeh Qamsari
        The Holy Qur’an has granted a very special station to a group of believers called muqarrabūn (Those who are close to God). Moreover, it has considered specific places in Paradise and some Otherworldly rewards for them which are different from those promised to ordinary More
        The Holy Qur’an has granted a very special station to a group of believers called muqarrabūn (Those who are close to God). Moreover, it has considered specific places in Paradise and some Otherworldly rewards for them which are different from those promised to ordinary pious believers. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate those attributes of this particular group which distinguish them from other pious, faithful, and righteous people. Some features such as knowledge, good deeds, worship, piety, high moral values, and devotion to social and benevolent services are easily detectable in muqarrabūn. Based on Sadrian principles, Man attains theoretical and practical perfection through the perception of truths and moral justice and, hence, finds access to true human pleasures. He also refers to a number of different criteria for identifying muqarrabūn including perfection in terms of knowledge and moral piety, intuition of the kingdom and God’s glory, drowning in divine kindness, and enjoying gnosis and true righteousness. However, Mullā Ṣadrā’s views regarding certain questions and issues in relation to muqarrabūn are sometimes ambiguous and sometimes non-revealing. Following a critical approach, the present paper analyzes the mentioned views. Manuscript profile
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        5 - An Analysis of the “Transcendence of Wisdom” based on Sadrian Self-Knowledge and Methodology
        Maryam Sadat Mousavi Mohammad Bidhendi Mohamad Mahdi Meshkati
        Mullā Ṣadrā’s school of philosophy is known as the Transcendent Wisdom. Mullā Ṣadrā prefers the term “wisdom” to “philosophy” and chooses “transcendence, which, in his view, enjoys a dynamic status, as the general direction of his philosophical structure. This point con More
        Mullā Ṣadrā’s school of philosophy is known as the Transcendent Wisdom. Mullā Ṣadrā prefers the term “wisdom” to “philosophy” and chooses “transcendence, which, in his view, enjoys a dynamic status, as the general direction of his philosophical structure. This point connects us to a system of factors which deal with the quality, direction, and nature of transcendence in this school. The present paper aims to clarify the process of creating this transcendence, as one of the several factors which contribute to the superiority of Sadrian wisdom, through investigating its psychological and methodological elements in two fields of the Origin and eschatology. Based on a Sadrian approach, if one seeks wisdom, they must become creative for themselves and in themselves and change their role from a spectator to a player in the realm of existence. Mullā Ṣadrā’s different view of the truth of the soul and expanding its perceptive levels are intertwined with methodology. This is because in his philosophy the knowledge of the soul is considered a method used in theology and eschatology. In his methodology, Mullā Ṣadrā begins with the recreation of concepts and, following a comprehensive and interdisciplinary approach, finds the correct method to be a combination of the intellect, transmission, and intuition. T’awīl (esoteric exegesis) and the use of a supreme language are among the other factors which are related to Mullā Ṣadrā’s specific methodology. Manuscript profile
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        6 - Consistency of Mullā Ṣadrā’s Perception of the Principle of Impossibility of the Knowledge of Effect without the Knowledge of Cause with Ontological Foundations of the Transcendent Philosophy
        Seyed Amin  Mirhoseini Ali Fathtaheri
        According to the principle of “impossibility of the knowledge of effect without the knowledge of cause”, it is not possible to attain any certain knowledge of an effect prior to attaining the knowledge of its cause. Based on logicians’ reading of this principle, it is o More
        According to the principle of “impossibility of the knowledge of effect without the knowledge of cause”, it is not possible to attain any certain knowledge of an effect prior to attaining the knowledge of its cause. Based on logicians’ reading of this principle, it is only our acquired knowledge, which is obtained through reasoning, that conforms to this principle. Nevertheless, Mullā Ṣadrā provides an innovative analysis of the mentioned principle and, in contrast to logicians, concludes that it applies to all types of knowledge, whether acquired, presential, axiomatic, or theoretical. Some commentators of Mullā Ṣadrā’s works do not agree with his new interpretation of this principle and maintain that it is defective. However, the present study reveals that his perception is compatible with his own ontological principles, and the criticisms advanced by his commentators originate in their lack of attention to them. Manuscript profile
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        7 - Editor's note
        Seyyed Mohammad Khamenei
        kheradname ye sadra
        kheradname ye sadra Manuscript profile
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        8 - What is Metaphysics?
        Reza  Dawari Ardakani
        Aristotle’s Metaphysics is perhaps the most fundamental work in the field of philosophy. The importance of this book is to the extent that it is now about 2000 years that its name is used to refer to first philosophy (philosophia prima) and theology. It is at least 1500 More
        Aristotle’s Metaphysics is perhaps the most fundamental work in the field of philosophy. The importance of this book is to the extent that it is now about 2000 years that its name is used to refer to first philosophy (philosophia prima) and theology. It is at least 1500 years that metaphysics is viewed as a science that discusses the basic principles, first causes, and subjects in particular sciences. Metaphysics, which was initially called first philosophy and universal science, consisted of two parts, one speaking of absolute existence and its essential accidents and the other discussing theology. Accordingly, the philosophers of the Islamic world called first philosophy or universal science theology and divided it into two parts: general affairs or theology in the general sense of the word, which discusses existence and its principles, causes, and accidents, and particular theology or theology in the particular sense of the word, which deals with problems related to oneness and attributes, names, and acts of the Almighty Necessary. Islamic philosophers were unanimous at least regarding the basic principles and many essential problems. However, in modern Western philosophy, metaphysical problems have developed a new form and, thus, different fields of philosophy have come into existence. The philosophers of the modern era, from the time of Descartes until now, have provided a definition for metaphysics which is apparently different from Aristotle’s. Instead of defining and describing this science, they have defined their own philosophy. The present paper aims to clarify the nature of metaphysics through a historical analysis of the subject of this scientific discipline. Manuscript profile
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        9 - Secrets of Sharī‘ah and Benefits of Obedience in Mullā Ṣadrā’s View
        Seyyed Mostafa  Muhaqqiq Damad
        According to religious teachings, religious rites and rituals, in addition to their external image, possess an internal image which creates Man’s identity and soul. In Islamic traditions, several works have been written on the secrets of Sharīa‘ah, some of which discuss More
        According to religious teachings, religious rites and rituals, in addition to their external image, possess an internal image which creates Man’s identity and soul. In Islamic traditions, several works have been written on the secrets of Sharīa‘ah, some of which discuss them in general and some analyze specific rites and rituals. In this regard, reference can be made to al-Futūḥāt al-makkīyyah by Ibn ‘Arabī, Asrār al-sharī‘ah wa aṭwār al-tarīqah wal-ḥaqīqah by Sayyid Haydar Amuli, Mahajjat-al-bayḍā by Mullā Muḥsin Fayḍ Kāshānī, treatise of al-Tanbihāt al-‘aliyyah ala waza’if al-ṣalāt al-qalbīyyah by Shahīd Thānī, and Asrār al-ṣalāt by Imam Khomeini. In two parts of the book al-Shawāhid al-rubūbīyyah fil manahij al-sulukīyyah, Mullā Ṣadrā has also discussed the secrets of Sharī‘ah. The present paper investigates and analyses his views regarding the secrets of Sharī‘ah. Manuscript profile
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        10 - Efficient Causality in the View of Islamic Mutikallimun and Philosophers
        Seyyed Sadra al-Din  Taheri
        Causality is at the center of several natural relationships which are studied in empirical sciences. Presently, it is the basis of the discovery of scientific laws. Moreover, the applications of different laws in various sciences, including all the laws related to indiv More
        Causality is at the center of several natural relationships which are studied in empirical sciences. Presently, it is the basis of the discovery of scientific laws. Moreover, the applications of different laws in various sciences, including all the laws related to individuals, societies, and other natural realms, in relation to fauna, flora, and minerals or inanimate things, have causality at their center. Here, the author has tried to examine the validity of the principle of causality from the viewpoints of two Islamic schools (Mu‘tazilah and Ash‘ariyyah) and two schools of Islamic philosophy (Peripatetic and Transcendent – from Ibn Sīnā to ‘Allāmah Ṭabāṭabā’ī). This paper consist consists of an Introduction, three detailed reports, a summary of findings, and a conclusion. Manuscript profile
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        11 - Structure of Logical Propositions in the View of Muslim Philosophers and Logicians
        Maqsud  Mohammadi
        Logical propositions are divided qualitatively into affirmative and negative types, and each of them is also divided into three attributive-predicate, privative-predicate, and negative-predicate types. Nevertheless, there are serious disagreements among philosophers and More
        Logical propositions are divided qualitatively into affirmative and negative types, and each of them is also divided into three attributive-predicate, privative-predicate, and negative-predicate types. Nevertheless, there are serious disagreements among philosophers and logicians regarding their structure and content, which demands more research. Neither is there any unanimity as to the number of the constitutive components of the truth of propositions and the components necessary for their realization. The number of components of a proposition is determined based on the difference between simple questions and affirmative and negative compound questions. Moreover, some thinkers maintain that the judicial relation is an affirmative and ontological relation in all propositions, whether affirmative or negative. However, some others believe that it is affirmative only in affirmative propositions, while it is negative and non-existential in negative propositions. Furthermore, the conditional or non-conditional nature of the actualization of modified affirmative propositions has been propounded, and the negative-predicate proposition has been debated. The structure of a negative-predicate proposition, when pronounced, is similar to a negative attributive proposition but is different from it regarding its content and signification. The content of a negative attributive proposition pertains to the elimination and interruption of the affirmation judgment, while the content of a negative-attributive proposition focuses on affirmation of negation. Khwajah Naṣīr al-Dīn Ṭūsī and ‘Allāmah Ṭabātabā’ī, the contemporary philosopher, do not accept such aproposition as a logical proposition. Manuscript profile
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        12 - An Analysis of the Double-Sided Divisions of Existence based on Sadrian Philosophical System
        Abdolal Shokr
        One of the principles of existence is its commensurability with actuality, externality, and unity. Accordingly, the problem is that this commensurability requires the other divisions, i.e., potential, mental, and multiple types of existence, to exit its domain of divisi More
        One of the principles of existence is its commensurability with actuality, externality, and unity. Accordingly, the problem is that this commensurability requires the other divisions, i.e., potential, mental, and multiple types of existence, to exit its domain of divisions. Later philosophers have tried to resolve this problem by adding two soulish and relative values. Regarding the soulish value, the actuality, unity, and externality of an existent are considered without comparing it to other existents, thus existence becomes commensurate with actuality, unity, and objectivity. Regarding the relative aspect, existences are compared to other existences, find their place in the division, and become the divided of the side in front of it. However, there is another problem because, based on the second assumption, the other side will not be compatible with the meaning of the divisions being the divided. This is because the divisions are separate from each other and have nothing in common; otherwise, the division would be meaningless. Apparently, this problem arises when dealing with the principiality of being and quiddity and ontological separation because the first division has been formed based on the philosophical system of early philosophers and is compatible with its fundamental principles. Following a comparative analytic method of content analysis, the present paper examines the roots of the changes in the double-sided divisions of existence and demonstrates that they were initially developed in the works of philosophers before Mullā Ṣadrā without taking the problem of the principiality of existence into consideration. However, they were later reinterpreted on the basis of this principle and, thus, created this problem. An analysis of this problem based on Sadrian principles could lead to an acceptable justification in this regard. Manuscript profile
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        13 - Philosophy and Art
        Seyyed Mohammad Khamenei
        Philosophy and Art Philosophy of Art
        Philosophy and Art Philosophy of Art Manuscript profile
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        14 - 100th Issue
        100th Issue
        100th Issue Manuscript profile
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        15 - Index of papers, published in kheradnaye Sadra
        Index of papers, published in kheradnaye Sadra
        Index of papers, published in kheradnaye Sadra Manuscript profile
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        16 - Index of Auathors
        Index of Auathors
        Index of Auathors Manuscript profile