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    • List of Articles Fatemeh Kookaram

      • Open Access Article

        1 - Anthropological Explanation of Death in Mullā Ṣadrā’s two Systems of Graded Unity and Individual Unity of Existence
        Abdollah Salavati Fatemeh Kookaram
        This study discusses the problem of death based on Mullā Ṣadrā’s two systems of graded and individual unities of existence and intends to explain death relying on anthropological principles. The most important of such principles include Man’s multi-dimensional nature, o Full Text
        This study discusses the problem of death based on Mullā Ṣadrā’s two systems of graded and individual unities of existence and intends to explain death relying on anthropological principles. The most important of such principles include Man’s multi-dimensional nature, ontological gradedness, corporeal origination of the soul and its spiritual subsistence, the problem of the soul and its relationship with the body, human stations, and being the manifestation of divine names. Mullā Ṣadrā divides death into three natural, premature, and voluntary types. In his view, the soul plays an active and key role in death. The main question of the present study is what the principles of the anthropology of death are in Mullā Ṣadrā’s view. He believes that death is an ontological affair in the sense of the soul’s voluntary, forceful, or generative desertion of the world of sensibles. In Mullā Ṣadrā’s two philosophical systems, death has two different faces; in his system of graded unity, it means severing the relationship with the body in the light of ontological gradedness and, in the system of individual unity, it means cutting the relationship with a name and joining another name in the light of various manifestations. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        2 - Voluntary Death in the View of Seyyed Ḥaydar Āmulī: A Gnostic and Psychological Analysis
        Fatemeh Kookaram Abdullah Salavati Einollah Khademi
        This study investigates voluntary death and its different types in the view of Seyyed Ḥaydar Āmulī and aims to provide a gnostic, psychological, and philosophical analysis of the issue. The authors believe that each type of voluntary death is a kind of practical wayfari Full Text
        This study investigates voluntary death and its different types in the view of Seyyed Ḥaydar Āmulī and aims to provide a gnostic, psychological, and philosophical analysis of the issue. The authors believe that each type of voluntary death is a kind of practical wayfaring. The main question of this study is how one can provide a gnostic and psychological analysis of different types of death as viewed by Seyyed Ḥaydar Āmulī. The findings of this study indicate that the common feature of all types of death is detaching oneself from worldly belongings and moving away from them. Examples are different and could include moving away from hunger, wearing specific clothes, etc. As mentioned before, this study provides a gnostic and psychological analysis of voluntary death; for example, green death means wearing cheap clothes. Therefore, by avoiding expensive and luxurious clothes, the wayfarer dies a voluntary death. Green is the symbol of balance and subsistence, and the wayfarer attains balance and immortality through voluntary death and keeping away from worldly whims and desires. Manuscript Document