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  • About Journal

    The Quarterly of Kheradname-ye Sadra is the first specialized journal of philosophy in Iran. It is published by the Sadra Islamic Philosophy Institute in order to explain and analyze the ideas of Mulla Sadra, in particular, and disseminate Islamic philosophy in general. The first issue of this Journal was published on 21st April 1995 with a scientific-promotional rank. This Journal has provided an appropriate context for introducing the differences between Islamic philosophy and Greek or Western philosophies.

    On 20th August 2006, Kheradname-ye Sadra succeeded in attaining the scientific-research rank from the Ministry of Sciences, Research, and Technology, and on 14th April 2009 it was indexed in the Inventory of Specialized Journals of the world in the field of philosophy.

    This Quarterly welcomes papers in related fields from all thinkers and interested scholars in the field of Islamic philosophy.

    The Editorial Board of Kheradname-ye Sadra consists of the following:

     

    Grantee: The Sadra Islamic Philosophy Research Institute (SIPRIn)

     Director and Editor-in-Chief: Professor Seyyed Mohammed Khamenei

     

    Members of the Editorial Board:

    Seyyed Mohammed Khamenei, Sadra Islamic Philosophy Research Institute (SIPRIn)

    Gholamhossein Ibrahimi Dinani, Tehran University

    Ahmad Ahmadi, Tehran University

    Gholamreza A‘awani, Shahid Beheshti University

    Reza Dawari Ardakani, Tehran University

    Karim Mojtahedi, Tehran University

    Seyyed Mostafa Mohaqqiq Damad, Shahid Beheshti University

    Maqsoud Mohammadi, Islamic Azad University

     

    Interested people can receive Kheradname-ye Sadra through the post by contacting the following phone number: 021 88153594.


    Latest published articles

    • Open Access Article

      1 - ٍEditore NOte
      S. Mohammad Khamenei
      Iss. 2 , Vol. 27 , Winter 2022
      زمستان سرد و سخت با «آنهمه ناز و تنعم كه خزان ميفرمود، عاقبت در قدم باد بهار آخر شد» و زمين سرد و بيجان، زندگي و جواني را دوباره آغاز كرد. از خجستگي اين دوره، تقارن دو بهار يعني «بهار طبيعت» كه بهار اَبدان است با «بهار جانها» و دلهاي خسته و بيجان، يعني شعبان و رمضان ميب Full Text
      زمستان سرد و سخت با «آنهمه ناز و تنعم كه خزان ميفرمود، عاقبت در قدم باد بهار آخر شد» و زمين سرد و بيجان، زندگي و جواني را دوباره آغاز كرد. از خجستگي اين دوره، تقارن دو بهار يعني «بهار طبيعت» كه بهار اَبدان است با «بهار جانها» و دلهاي خسته و بيجان، يعني شعبان و رمضان ميباشد؛ فصلي كه بشر خسته‌دل و افسرده‌جان، رو به جواني و تجديد حيات مي‌آورد و جامة كهنة ماده‌پرستي را از تن درمي‌آورد و روح خفتة خود را از خواب زمستاني زندگي عادي و حيواني بيدار ميكند و نويد روزگاري نو را ميدهد و آغوش دل را براي معنويت و ياد جانبخش خداوندگار رحيم و رحمان ميگشايد. در اين دو بهار (بهار جان و بهار تن)، بر هر انسان باخرد و هوشمند است كه تا فرصتي هست لحاف غفلت را از سر خود بدور بيفكند و از زندگي روزمرة حيواني به عرصة انساني و ملكوتي روي بياورد و با عبادت در شعبان و روزه و ترك شكمبار‌گي و شهوت حيواني در رمضان، روح خود را صيقل دهد و زنگار از آينة دل بتراشد و تولدي ديگر را آغاز كند و انسان شود. ماه شعبان منه از دست قدح كاين خورشيد از نظر تا شب عيد رمضان خواهد شد يكي از حقايق جامعه‌شنا‌ختي و فلسفي، جدايي و استقلال هويت هر جامعه از افراد آن است، يعني جامعه نيز مانند هر فرد انسان براي خود احكام و قواعدي دارد و در باطن آن روحي نهفته است كه فرهنگ و اعتقاد او را حفاظت ميكند، فرهنگي حكومت دارد كه كردار و رفتار اجتماعي هر جامعه را نشان ميدهد و آن جامعه را به جامعة سالم يا فاسد و بيمار، جامعه جوان و پويا يا افسرده و ناتوان، و جامعة با ارزش و بي‌ارزش، تقسيم ميكند. جوامع انساني نيز مانند افراد بشر، در كشاكش فشارها و آسيبهاي خواسته يا ناخواستة خود و بسبب دوري از معنويت و ترك صراط مستقيم قواعد آفرينش جهان، دچار بيماري و افسردگي ميشوند، يا بالعكس، در صورت پيروزي بر آسيبها و دشمنان و رويكردن به كمالات معنوي، رشد و تعالي مي‌يابند و با بهره‌گيري از بهار دلها و جانها، روح جواني يافته و شكوفا ميگردند. بهار انقلاب اسلامي در ايران مثالي براي اين واقعيت است. ملت ايران با انقلاب اسلامي خود و روي‌نمودن به معنويت، از بركت روح تازه‌يي كه «نَفَس رحماني» و الهي يافت، توانست پيري و افسردگي تاريخي خود را به كناري بگذارد و شادابي و جواني را از سر بگيرد و استعدادهاي پنهان و خدادادي خود را در همة زمينه‌هاي پيشرفت نشان دهد؛ اگرچه فتنة دشمنان تاريخي و در كنار آنها، حاكمان بي‌تدبير يا خود فروختة داخلي، تحمل اين رشد و شكوفايي را ننموده و سعي بر آن دارند تا اين جامعة پويا را بسوي خزان و افسردگي بكشانند. بايد توجه داشت كه همانگونه كه هر فرد انسان، بنابر وظيفة الهي خود، مسئول رشد و تربيت خود و مكلف به بيدارنگه‌‌داشتن دل و روح خفته درون خود ميباشد، مديران رسمي جامعه نيز مسئول مراقبت و تربيت و بيدارسازي روح افسرده يا خفته هر جامعه و ملت هستند، وگرنه حيات سياسي و استقلال و نيز فرهنگ متعالي آن جامعه و ملت، رو به خطر خواهد رفت و طعمة دشمنان و گرگان در كمين نشسته خواهد شد. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      2 - Philosophy of Imāmah and its Place in Mullā Ṣadrā’s Philosophy with an Emphasis on Sharḥ Uṣūl al-Kāfī
      Abdollah Mirahmadi Mona Amanipoor
      Iss. 2 , Vol. 27 , Winter 2022
      A study of the discussions of the book Sharḥ uṣūl al-kāfī reveals that Mullā Ṣadrā has tried in this book to interpret Imāmah (leadership) and its nature – as a position appointed by God – based on the truths in the words of the Infallible Imams. In spite of the rationa Full Text
      A study of the discussions of the book Sharḥ uṣūl al-kāfī reveals that Mullā Ṣadrā has tried in this book to interpret Imāmah (leadership) and its nature – as a position appointed by God – based on the truths in the words of the Infallible Imams. In spite of the rational and shar‘ī nature of the concept of Imāmah and the different approaches to it, Mullā Ṣadrā has never provided a human-oriented and non-divine interpretation of this position. Rather, through granting principliality and attending to the narrative and Kalāmi beliefs in Shi‘ism, he emphasizes the ultra-human and divine status of this position when explaining the narrations in kitāb al-ḥujjah as a section of al-Kāfī. When discussing the concept of Imāmah and while posing and criticizing the views of various Islamic sects regarding the problem of appointment, Mullā Ṣadrā acknowledges that the existence of Imam is necessary based on the principle of the noblest possibility. Moreover, he refers to certain features and privileges in order to demonstrate that Imām is the proof of God. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      3 - A Comparison of the Body-Soul Relationship in Philosophical Behaviorism and Sadrian Philosophy
      Naeimeh  Najmi Nejad Morteza Rezaee
      Iss. 2 , Vol. 27 , Winter 2022
      The discussion of the relationship between the soul and body has always been a challenging problem. The most important problem with this discussion is the quality of the relationship between the soul as an immaterial existence with the body as a material existence. Many Full Text
      The discussion of the relationship between the soul and body has always been a challenging problem. The most important problem with this discussion is the quality of the relationship between the soul as an immaterial existence with the body as a material existence. Many thinkers have presented some theories in response to this problem. Following a descriptive-analytic approach, the present study examines and compares behaviorism, which provides some of the important theories in the philosophy of the mind, with the view of Mullā Ṣadrā as the most prominent Islamic Philosopher. The findings of the study indicate that both behaviorist and Mullā Ṣadrā believe in the oneness of the soul and body. However, behaviorists conceive of the soul and mental states as nothing but external human behavior. This approach in fact rejects the immateriality of the soul and its mental states, while Mullā Ṣadrā considers the relationship between the body and the soul as integration through unification based on some of his own principles including the graded trans-substantial motion and the soul’s corporeal origination. In his view, the soul, while being a single substance, enjoys both a material and corporeal level and different levels of immateriality – including Ideal and rational types – because of its graded nature. In other words, there is a single conjunctive truth that appears in the form of the body at lower levels and as the soul at higher levels. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      4 - Applications of Mullā Ṣadrā’s Psychological Principles in Education
      Mahdi Rezaei
      Iss. 2 , Vol. 27 , Winter 2022
      The basis of education, in general, and Islamic education, in particular, is the human soul (psyche). In order to educate the soul and psyche, there are some principles that are employed to achieve the predetermined goals and objectives. Given the religious approach of Full Text
      The basis of education, in general, and Islamic education, in particular, is the human soul (psyche). In order to educate the soul and psyche, there are some principles that are employed to achieve the predetermined goals and objectives. Given the religious approach of this study and the potentials of the Transcendent Philosophy in this regard, the author has tried to identify and examine the applications of the principles of educating the soul (psyche) based on Mullā Ṣadrā’s philosophical thoughts. Some of these principles include the substance of the soul’s immateriality, the corporeal origination and spiritual subsistence of the soul, and its graded trans-substantial motion in its process of development. Following this, he has dealt with the educational principles inferred from the mentioned principles and the purposes of this study, such as graded transcendence and graduation and transformationalism, reform, and recreation in the process of educating the soul (psyche). This study was conducted following a combination of descriptive-analytic and inferential methods while using library resources in order to describe the concepts and analyze and clarify the problem. The author has specifically referred to Mullā Ṣadrā’s books (particularly al-Asfār, VIII and IX) and the works of some of his commentators in order to extract and infer the related principles employed in the education of the soul. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      5 - A Critical Study of Ibn Sīnā’s Arguments on the Materialism of Particular Perceptive Experience with an Emphasis on the Problem of “Explanatory Gap”
      Ahmad  Va’ezi Mehdi  Karimi
      Iss. 2 , Vol. 27 , Winter 2022
      By doubting the materiality of perceptions based on the problem of explanatory gap, a rational basis is provided for criticizing Ibn Sīnā’s arguments regarding the impossibility of the immateriality of particular perceptions, the demonstration of possibility, and also t Full Text
      By doubting the materiality of perceptions based on the problem of explanatory gap, a rational basis is provided for criticizing Ibn Sīnā’s arguments regarding the impossibility of the immateriality of particular perceptions, the demonstration of possibility, and also the necessity of the immateriality of different types of perception. The material interpretation of particular perceptions – whether sensory or imaginal – is among Ibn Sīnā’s views in the ontology of perception. Through providing some arguments on the impossibility of the immateriality of particular perceptive experiences, he believes that the only possible state with respect to such experiences is their immateriality. On the other hand, hypothesizing the existence of a possible world in which a metaphysical state such as pain can be imagined in the absence of a neural process makes the distinction between mental state and neural process possible. This explanatory gap between them makes the immateriality of perception possible through negating the identity of these two phenomena. Given the distinction between physical and metaphysical states and the necessity of the immateriality of perception based on various philosophical arguments, the materiality of particular perception is debatable. Therefore, Mullā Ṣadrā’s idea of the immateriality of sensory and imaginal perception, similar to rational perceptions, presents a more comprehensive explanation of perception and the soul. This paper focus on a study of the whatness and ontology of particular perceptions, the discussion of which is subcategorized under the problem of the soul-body relation in the process of perception. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      6 - The Use of Intellect and Reasoning in Demonstrating Divine Attributes in Mullā Ṣadrā’s View
      Mozhgan Fatahi Ali  Arshad Riahi
      Iss. 2 , Vol. 27 , Winter 2022
      Mullā Ṣadrā states in his works that the employment of the intellect and intellectual reasoning is efficient in the independent demonstration and understanding of divine attributes. By explaining Mullā Ṣadrā’s method of using the intellect, it becomes clear that he has Full Text
      Mullā Ṣadrā states in his works that the employment of the intellect and intellectual reasoning is efficient in the independent demonstration and understanding of divine attributes. By explaining Mullā Ṣadrā’s method of using the intellect, it becomes clear that he has formulated his discussion based on proof and has presented some extensive and cohesive discussions about divine attributes so that the most important of which have been clearly explained and demonstrated. Based on the present study, the most important philosophical arguments and principles which Mullā Ṣadrā has explained and demonstrated in this field include ontological proof, principle of “Truth in its simplicity contains everything”, principle of “The giver of something cannot lack it”, and principle of “The Necessary Being is necessary by essence from all aspects, and providence. Mullā Ṣadrā’s extensive discussions on divine attributes, which are based on rational arguments, indicate his belief in the truth of the intellect’s independent function in this field, on the one hand, and confirm its capability in the field of epistemology of divine attributes in an independent form, on the other hand. The result of this study is the development of an approach based on distinguishing the two independent and instrumental functions of the intellect, which has not been considered in other studies previously. Not distinguishing between these two functions has resulted in attributing an irrational and unverifiable or even eclectic nature to the methodology of the Transcendent Philosophy. As a case study on divine attributes, the present study explains the rational, verifiable, and philosophical dimensions to the Sadrian Transcendent Philosophy. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      7 - Voluntary Death in the View of Seyyed Ḥaydar Āmulī: A Gnostic and Psychological Analysis
      Fatemeh Kookaram Abdullah Salavati Einollah Khademi
      Iss. 2 , Vol. 27 , Winter 2022
      This study investigates voluntary death and its different types in the view of Seyyed Ḥaydar Āmulī and aims to provide a gnostic, psychological, and philosophical analysis of the issue. The authors believe that each type of voluntary death is a kind of practical wayfari Full Text
      This study investigates voluntary death and its different types in the view of Seyyed Ḥaydar Āmulī and aims to provide a gnostic, psychological, and philosophical analysis of the issue. The authors believe that each type of voluntary death is a kind of practical wayfaring. The main question of this study is how one can provide a gnostic and psychological analysis of different types of death as viewed by Seyyed Ḥaydar Āmulī. The findings of this study indicate that the common feature of all types of death is detaching oneself from worldly belongings and moving away from them. Examples are different and could include moving away from hunger, wearing specific clothes, etc. As mentioned before, this study provides a gnostic and psychological analysis of voluntary death; for example, green death means wearing cheap clothes. Therefore, by avoiding expensive and luxurious clothes, the wayfarer dies a voluntary death. Green is the symbol of balance and subsistence, and the wayfarer attains balance and immortality through voluntary death and keeping away from worldly whims and desires. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      8 - Specificity of Attaining the Station of Perfect Man in Mullā Ṣadrā’s View: Arguments and Consequences
      Maryam Ahmadi Sahar Kavandi Mohsen Jahed
      Iss. 2 , Vol. 27 , Winter 2022
      One of the most comprehensive studies in the Sadrian philosophical system pertains to the field of anthropology. Moreover, one of the manifestations of the comprehensiveness of this discussion is dealing with the nature and place of the perfect Man in the order of being Full Text
      One of the most comprehensive studies in the Sadrian philosophical system pertains to the field of anthropology. Moreover, one of the manifestations of the comprehensiveness of this discussion is dealing with the nature and place of the perfect Man in the order of being and its referents and worldly and other-worldly functions, which have been explored in several studies. However, what they have all neglected is the attention to the reasons of the specific nature of this station and its consequences in this school of philosophy. It seems that the attention to this point can grant more depth to anthropological discussions in the Transcendent Philosophy and Islamic philosophy. Accordingly, this study aims to provide an analytic account of the reason for the uniqueness of this station in Mullā Ṣadrā’s works. Here, while analyzing the factors affecting the emergence and perfection of human beings through difference of souls within the framework of apriori and aposteriori multiplicity, the authors explain the restriction of this station to quite a few people. The findings of this study indicate that the station of the perfect Man can be attained through the prophet’s invitation, obligation, courtesy, etc. Nevertheless, developing the highest levels of this station is not possible for all, which justifies the quality of the voluntary perfection of the Infallible Imāms (‘a) and the prophets (ṣ). Manuscript Document
    Most Viewed Articles

    • Open Access Article

      1 - Negation through the Denial of Subject: A Study of Khwajah Nair’s View
      Seyyed Mahmoud  Yousef Sani
      Iss. 2 , Vol. 21 , Winter 2021
      Aristotle’s view regarding the emptiness or non-emptiness of the terms of propositions has been interpreted in two ways. In one of them, the terms of propositions always include an existing individual or some existing individuals and are non-empty. Therefore, in negativ Full Text
      Aristotle’s view regarding the emptiness or non-emptiness of the terms of propositions has been interpreted in two ways. In one of them, the terms of propositions always include an existing individual or some existing individuals and are non-empty. Therefore, in negative propositions, the collection of the individuals of the subject is never an empty collection either. Hence, there is no difference between negative and affirmative propositions regarding the necessity of the existence of individuals for their subjects. According to the other interpretation, in any proposition, whether negative or affirmative, its components should be first conceived and come into being through a mental existence. Then, if the proposition is an affirmative one, in addition to this mental concept, there should be an existing or supposedly existing individual to receive an affirmative judgment. However, in case of a negative proposition, except the mental existence of the proposition, which is necessary for passing judgment, there is no need for an existing or supposedly existing individual to receive the predicate attribute. Hence, there is a difference between affirmative and negative propositions in this regard. In his interpretation of negative propositions, Khwajah Nasir Tusi has paid attention to both aspects and considered each of the two interpretations to be correct in its own right. The first interpretation is ruled as a correct one given the propositions which are used in different sciences – and these propositions always depend on external truths. Moreover, the second interpretation is correct due to the absoluteness aspect of negative propositions, and also because a non-existent entity cannot be qualified with any quality, including the predicate attribute, since it is non-existent. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      2 - Sources of Knowledge in Mulla Sadra
      Mahdi  Zakeri Hossein  Emadzadeh
      Iss. 3 , Vol. 22 , Spring 2021
      In the Transcendent Philosophy, valid knowledge sources include: external senses, internal senses, intellect, intuition, testimony, and tradition. In Mulla Sadra’s view, the first source of knowledge acquisition is external senses, and common sense is the most important Full Text
      In the Transcendent Philosophy, valid knowledge sources include: external senses, internal senses, intellect, intuition, testimony, and tradition. In Mulla Sadra’s view, the first source of knowledge acquisition is external senses, and common sense is the most important internal sense of human beings. The intellect which distinguishes Man from other beings has a limit which restricts the magnitude of knowledge acquisition. Mulla Sadra divides the intellect into theoretical and practical types and, while considering both of them as knowledge sources, he sees their difference in their objects. It is only intuition which can access anything that is recognizable. Testimony, if widely transmitted and related to sensible affairs, is valid as a dependent knowledge source, and a transmitted reason, particularly in religious discussions, is an independent and infallible source. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      3 - Manifestation of Sadrian Philosophy in Islamic Architecture
      Behrooz  ‘Avazpoor Bahman  Namvar Motlagh Saina  Mohammadi Khabazan
      Iss. 1 , Vol. 20 , Autumn 2021
      Mulla Sadra’s philosophical thoughts profoundly influenced the development of art, in general, and the architecture of his time, in particular. Therefore, it seems necessary to carefully examine and discuss his ideas and theories in this regard in order to have a better Full Text
      Mulla Sadra’s philosophical thoughts profoundly influenced the development of art, in general, and the architecture of his time, in particular. Therefore, it seems necessary to carefully examine and discuss his ideas and theories in this regard in order to have a better and more accurate understanding of the art and architecture of that period. Since the concept of imagination plays a basic role in the definition of Islamic art from the point of view of Mulla Sadra and other Islamic philosophers and gnostics, in this paper the writers firstly deal with a part of his philosophy that explains this concept. Following this, they will refer to the role and place of imagination in art works in their general sense and explore the actualization of such works in the field of architecture, particularly, those of the Safavid era. Imagination plays such a central role in this discussion that one can define Islamic art in its general sense as the manifestation of an intelligible matter in a sensible one through active imagination. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      4 - Mulla Sadra on Oneness of Being
      Seyyed Morteza  Hosseini Shahroudi Mohammad Ali  Vatandoust
      Iss. 4 , Vol. 19 , Summer 2021
      In the process of development of his philosophical thoughts, Mulla Sadra managed to move from graded unity to the individual unity of existence based on his own philosophical principles. Through interpreting causality as epiphany, he limited the truth of existence to Al Full Text
      In the process of development of his philosophical thoughts, Mulla Sadra managed to move from graded unity to the individual unity of existence based on his own philosophical principles. Through interpreting causality as epiphany, he limited the truth of existence to Almighty Necessary and considered other than Him to be the emanations and different forms of the Necessary Single Existence. The writers of this paper intend to present Mulla Sadra’s ultimate theory on the oneness of being and reveal the identity of the oneness of being in the Transcendent Philosophy with gnostics’ idea of this concept. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      5 - Philosophical Principles of Human Training in the Transcendent Philosophy
      Seyyed Mehdi  Mirhadi Hassanali  Bakhtiyar Nasrabadi Mohammad  Najafi
      Iss. 2 , Vol. 22 , Winter 2021
      Following an analytic-deductive method, this paper is intended to provide a plan of the consequences of Mulla Sadra’s philosophical approach in the field of education. This plan can portray a framework and perspective of divine and religious training in the poisoned and Full Text
      Following an analytic-deductive method, this paper is intended to provide a plan of the consequences of Mulla Sadra’s philosophical approach in the field of education. This plan can portray a framework and perspective of divine and religious training in the poisoned and crisis-stricken atmosphere of secular educational system before our eyes. Feeding on the source of Qur’anic revelation and traditions and synthesizing reasoning and intuition have granted a particular status to Sadrian philosophy. Mulla Sadra’s innovation with regard to posing the attached identity of the soul, while solving the secret of the relationship between the body and the soul, demonstrates the possibility of the essential change of the soul (as opposed to the changes in the accidents of the soul) and clarifies the rational necessity of training. In his plan of philosophical anthropology, the soul needs the body not only for its origination but also for the realization of its identity. The body is the realm of the appearance of the soul, the loci of its acts, and Man’s only asset for creating their own identity. It also plays a complex and unique role in the process of human training. Developing a clear picture of the quality of the change of a material existent (seed) into an eternal and immaterial human could decipher his theory of the trans-substantial motion and explain the truth of education. Eventually, through presenting the theory of corporeal origination and spiritual subsistence of the soul, Mulla Sadra demonstrates that the realm of human training enjoys an amazingly profound and infinite magnitude. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      6 - Ibn Sina and Mulla Sadra on the Soul-Body Relation: An Evaluation of the Efficiency of their Principles in Attaining their Ends
      Furugh al-Sadat  Rahimpoor
      Iss. 3 , Vol. 22 , Spring 2021
      One of the differences between Ibn Sina and Mulla Sadra in the field of anthropology pertains to their approach to soul-body relation. This difference is rooted in the principles underlying the philosophical school of each of them. The soul-body relation, according to M Full Text
      One of the differences between Ibn Sina and Mulla Sadra in the field of anthropology pertains to their approach to soul-body relation. This difference is rooted in the principles underlying the philosophical school of each of them. The soul-body relation, according to Mulla Sadra, is an essential and existential relation, which is the reason why he argues for the elemental body functioning as the material cause of the soul’s physical level. In contrast, based on Ibn Sina’s views, the soul needs the body merely for the acquisition of existential perfections and not for its very existence. Moreover, he maintains that there is no essential causation between the body and the soul. Next, Ibn Sina holds that the soul and the body enjoy composition by way of unification, and so does Mulla Sadra; however, he maintains that it is only through accepting some of the basic principles of the Transcendent Philosophy that one can justify this union. The next problem is that if the body and the soul have an ontological relationship with each other rather than an accidental one, is it possible for the soul’s dependence on the body to be disrupted? Besides, if it is certainly obvious that the soul is graded, should one not consider the body to be graded so that it could maintain its unity with the soul at its different levels? Due to the differences between the underlying principles of their philosophies, Mulla Sadra and Ibn Sina provide different responses to the above questions. This paper aims to study such responses analytically and evaluate the efficiency of these underlying principles in addressing their intended targets. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      7 - Mulla Sadra: From General Gradation to Particular Oneness
      Abdolali  Shokr Morteza  Hamedi
      Iss. 2 , Vol. 22 , Winter 2021
      The term “gradation” was used first in logical discussions. Later some thinkers such as Ibn Sina and Suhrawardi employed it in the realm of philosophy as well. A study of the collection of Ibn Sina’s works indicates that he only treaded on the path of general gradation. Full Text
      The term “gradation” was used first in logical discussions. Later some thinkers such as Ibn Sina and Suhrawardi employed it in the realm of philosophy as well. A study of the collection of Ibn Sina’s works indicates that he only treaded on the path of general gradation. Suhrawardi, who paved the way for particular gradation in Mulla Sadra’s philosophy, considered existence to be mentally-posited. Thus he turned to gradation in essence and quiddity; a theory which was not accepted by Mulla Sadra and Peripatetic philosophers. If principiality, unity, and gradation of existence constitute the three main pillars of the Transcendent Philosophy, particular gradation and particularly particular gradation complete the Sadrian school of philosophy and signify the peak of its excellence. Mulla Sadra initially proposed particular gradation in order to reject general gradation and the theory of the difference of beings. Then he tried to provide a new interpretation for it in comparison to the Illuminationist particular gradation. While rejecting this kind of gradation and through being inspired by gnostic thoughts and the revealed Qur’anic verses, he introduced a particularly particular gradation to justify the multiplicity of existents and provide a new interpretation of oneness which is in line with gnostic oneness. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      8 - Foreword
      Seyyed Mohammad Khamenei
      Iss. 4 , Vol. 22 , Summer 2021

    • Open Access Article

      9 - Different Types of Intellect in Mulla Hadi Sabziwari’s View
      Seyyed Mohammad  Hosseini Nik Seyyed Hashem  Golestani Fathali  Akbari
      Iss. 1 , Vol. 24 , Autumn 2021
      There are several different interpretations of the intellect, and a number of different duties, types, and levels have been attributed to it in conformity with each interpretation. Among them, reference can be made to fitri intellect, theoretical intellect, practical in Full Text
      There are several different interpretations of the intellect, and a number of different duties, types, and levels have been attributed to it in conformity with each interpretation. Among them, reference can be made to fitri intellect, theoretical intellect, practical intellect, universal intellect, active intellect, basis for obligation, etc. In the same vein, gnostics and sufis have even referred to obligation and escape from the intellect. In this paper, following an analytic-descriptive method and based on a new ontological and epistemological division, the writers have tried to examine the different types of the intellect from the viewpoint of Mulla Hadi Sabziwari. In the ontology of the intellect, this concept is considered as a level of existence or an existent which is discussed in the framework of universal intellects, particular intellects, and the ten-fold intellects. Moreover, the relationships and differences between them are explained therein. From an epistemological approach, the intellect is viewed as Man’s faculty of perception. The writers also explore the natural intellect, empirical intellect, theoretical intellect, and practical intellect and their levels, the simple intellect, and the differentiated intellect alongside the epistemology of the intellect. The findings of this study indicate that, when explaining the different types of the intellect, we sometimes deal with the human intellect (levels of the rational souls, particular intellect, or livelihood intellect) and sometimes with non-human intellects (universal separate intellects) and, since the ascended and descended intellects are two levels of the same species, they connect with each other in the arches of ascent and descent. The findings also reveal that the intellect which gnostics usually reproach is the imperfect particular intellect, which is under the influence of fanciful thoughts, and it is the habitual and natural intellect which is the criterion for obligation. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      10 - Different Sides of Training in Sadrian Geometry with an Emphasis on its Stages, Goals, Principles, and Methods
      Mohammad Reza  Shamshiri
      Iss. 2 , Vol. 22 , Winter 2021
      Sadrian philosophy presents a new approach to human beings and their ontological dimensions, which can be used as a foundation for developing educational theories based on an Islamic point of view. Hence, while explaining Mulla Sadra’s view of moral training along with Full Text
      Sadrian philosophy presents a new approach to human beings and their ontological dimensions, which can be used as a foundation for developing educational theories based on an Islamic point of view. Hence, while explaining Mulla Sadra’s view of moral training along with a short illustration of the related categories and using an analytic-deductive method, this study aims to draw on his theories regarding the soul as the basis for education and training in order to examine his educational denotations and conclusions with an emphasis on educational stages, objectives, principles and methods. Here, it is necessary to pay attention to the ultimate goal of moral training, that is, unveiling the truth and the related intermediate goals, including training human beings at the vegetative soul, animal soul, and human soul stages. To attain the purpose of this study, it is also of prime importance to explore the necessary interrelations between the philosophical principles of the Transcendent Philosophy and educational principles and also examine the different methods of moral training including the development of sensation, imagination, and rational faculties. Manuscript Document
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    Seyyed Mohammed Khamenei (Sadra Islamic Philosophy Research Institute ) Gholamhossein Ibrahimi Dinani (University of Tehran) Gholamreza A‘awani (Shahid Beheshti University) Reza Dawari Ardakani (University of Tehran) Karim Mojtahedi (University of Tehran) Seyyed Mostafa Mohaqqiq Damad (Shahid Beheshti University) Maghsoud Mohammadi (Islamic Azad University) Seyyed Sadr al-Din Taheri (Allameh Tabataba’i University)
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