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  • About Journal

    The Quarterly of Kheradname-ye Sadra is the first specialized journal of philosophy in Iran. It is published by the Sadra Islamic Philosophy Institute in order to explain and analyze the ideas of Mulla Sadra, in particular, and disseminate Islamic philosophy in general. The first issue of this Journal was published on 21st April 1995 with a scientific-promotional rank. This Journal has provided an appropriate context for introducing the differences between Islamic philosophy and Greek or Western philosophies.

    On 20th August 2006, Kheradname-ye Sadra succeeded in attaining the scientific-research rank from the Ministry of Sciences, Research, and Technology, and on 14th April 2009 it was indexed in the Inventory of Specialized Journals of the world in the field of philosophy.

    This Quarterly welcomes papers in related fields from all thinkers and interested scholars in the field of Islamic philosophy.

    The Editorial Board of Kheradname-ye Sadra consists of the following:

     

    Grantee: The Sadra Islamic Philosophy Research Institute (SIPRIn)

     Director and Editor-in-Chief: Professor Seyyed Mohammed Khamenei

     

    Members of the Editorial Board:

    Seyyed Mohammed Khamenei, Sadra Islamic Philosophy Research Institute (SIPRIn)

    Gholamhossein Ibrahimi Dinani, Tehran University

    Ahmad Ahmadi, Tehran University

    Gholamreza A‘awani, Shahid Beheshti University

    Reza Dawari Ardakani, Tehran University

    Karim Mojtahedi, Tehran University

    Seyyed Mostafa Mohaqqiq Damad, Shahid Beheshti University

    Maqsoud Mohammadi, Islamic Azad University

     

    Interested people can receive Kheradname-ye Sadra through the post by contacting the following phone number: 021 88153594.


    Latest published articles

    • Open Access Article

      1 - Editors' Note
      S. Mohammad Khamenei
      Issue 4 , Volume 26 , Summer 2021
      بيش از يكسال از ظهور پديدة مرگبار ويروسي بنام كرونا ميگذرد و اين موجود حقير ناچيز، تمام مدعيان قدرت و حشمت جهان را به پيكار خوانده و آنان را در موضع ضعف و فروماندگي نشانده است. مشيّت حكيمانة خداوند متعال اقتضا داشته كه با اين موجود نزديك به هيچ، هم طاغوتيان زمان را از Full Text
      بيش از يكسال از ظهور پديدة مرگبار ويروسي بنام كرونا ميگذرد و اين موجود حقير ناچيز، تمام مدعيان قدرت و حشمت جهان را به پيكار خوانده و آنان را در موضع ضعف و فروماندگي نشانده است. مشيّت حكيمانة خداوند متعال اقتضا داشته كه با اين موجود نزديك به هيچ، هم طاغوتيان زمان را از اوج كبريا و قدرت‌نمايي به مذلّت درماندگي و بيچارگي فروبكشاند و هم عاقبت نافرماني مردم از پيروي فرمان الهي و دين و اخلاق را به آنان نشان دهد و سنتهاي الهي را يادآور گردد. ظهور اين بيماري در كشور ما، و ديگر كشورها، گرچه موجب جنبش دستگاههاي مسئول گرديد و سبب تلاشهاي بسيار شدتا با مداوا و درمان بيماران، را از مرگ بسياري از مردم جلوگيري نمايند امّا اين پرسش جگرخوار و دل‌آزار را يكبار ديگر زنده كرد كه چرا اينگونه كه به سلامت تن و جسم مادي انسان ميپردازيم و به بقاء و حيات ظاهري آنان مي‌انديشيم، در چاره و علاج آسيبها و زخم و ضررهاي روح و جان او ـ‌ روح و جاني كه «هويت» واقعي انسان است‌‌ـ آنچنان كه بايد برنميخيزيم و به درمان و مقابله با آن قيام نميكنيم!؟ چرا براي آفات روحي و فكري و اعتقادي، كه همچون ويروسي هزار چهره و غدّار، عرصة جامعه انقلابي ما را فرا گرفته و در اين چهار دهه پس از انقلاب بدست دشمنان اين ملت و اين نظام ساخته شده و روح و فكر مردم را به پوچي دروني افراد و نابودي هويت ملي و اعتقادي آنها سوق ميدهد، چاره‌يي چنانكه بايد، نمينديشيم؟ در حاليكه انسانيت انسان به روح و روان و انديشه و ميزان عقلانيت او بستگي دارد و بقول سعدي: «تن آدمي شريف است بجان آدميت، نه همين لباس زيباست نشان آدميت» و حكما گفته‌اند كه انساني كه جسمي سالم ولي روح و فكري ناسالم داشته باشد، انسان نيست بلكه حيواني است انسان‌نما كه اثري بجز ضرر و ثمري بجز عبث ندارد. در كنار تشكيلات و ستادها كه براي مبارزه با ويروس كرونا برپا شد، كدام ستاد پادر ركاب و پويا براي رفع و دفع آسيبها و اپيدميهاي روحي و فرهنگي برپا كرده‌ايم؟ و كدام واكسن و دارو براي نجات و گريز از آفات فكري و اعتقادي و فرهنگي فراهم ساخته‌ايم؟ و چرا هر روز آفات روحي و اعتقادي و فكري از نسلهاي جوان ما قرباني ميگيرد؟ بضرورت و حكم عقل و شرع، لازم است كه مسئولين دلسوز كشور بكمك خردمندان و مربيان جامعه، در كنار پيشگيري و علاج بيماري و خطرات جسم و تن افراد، در رفع اين آفات معنوي از جامعه و نظام اسلامي، تشكيلات و ستادها از آنگونه كه بايد، فراهم سازند و سلامت روحي و فرهنگي و اعتقادي جوانان اين ملت را از شر دشمنان بشريت و نظام اسلامي نگهباني كنند. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      2 - A Review of Mullā Ṣadrā’s Responses to the Problem of the Necessity of Subsuming One Quiddity into two Categories in the Discussion of Mental Existence
      Mohammad Hadi  Tavakkoli
      Issue 4 , Volume 26 , Summer 2021
      Based on the theory of the qualitative nature of knowledge and the identity of mental and objective quiddities, the acceptance of the theory of mental existence poses the problem of the necessity of the inclusion of knowledge in two categories. In his works, Mullā Ṣadrā Full Text
      Based on the theory of the qualitative nature of knowledge and the identity of mental and objective quiddities, the acceptance of the theory of mental existence poses the problem of the necessity of the inclusion of knowledge in two categories. In his works, Mullā Ṣadrā has tried to solve this problem through distinguishing between common and primary predications, application of two categories to knowledge from two essential and accidental aspects, negation of the subsistence of inherence, and acceptance of the application of two categories to cognitive form due to the mentally-positedness of quiddity, and the possibility of its shadow-like realization in the form of multiple existences. Although a study of his responses indicate their incompleteness in resolving the issue, his principles have paved the ground for accomplishing this task through accepting the “predication of the indicator on the indicated”. According to this view, regardless of what the nature and category of the cognitive form is, the narration of the nature of an external thing is introduced as the ontological attribute of the cognitive form, which has nothing to do with its nature and is, rather, outside the realm of categories. Through this solution, we can both maintain the correspondence between the cognitive form and the nature of the external thing and, while accepting the realization of the cognitive form in the mind, resolve the problem of the necessity of the inclusion of knowledge in two categories. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      3 - A Study of the Theory of the Correspondence of Worlds and its Role in Explaining the Relationship Between Cognitive and Objective Existence of Possible Things in the Transcendent Philosophy
      Ahmad Ghafari
      Issue 4 , Volume 26 , Summer 2021
      Similar to most Muslim philosophers, Mullā Ṣadrā conceives of the divine essential knowledge of possible things as prior knowledge and maintains that it is of the type of active knowledge. However, the actuality of divine knowledge in the system of the Transcendent phil Full Text
      Similar to most Muslim philosophers, Mullā Ṣadrā conceives of the divine essential knowledge of possible things as prior knowledge and maintains that it is of the type of active knowledge. However, the actuality of divine knowledge in the system of the Transcendent philosophy has a different meaning from its well-known interpretation. The understanding of this different meaning demands paying attention to Mullā Ṣadrā’s particular perception of the theory of the correspondence of worlds, where he emphasizes the objective correspondence of cognitive and objective worlds instead of their categorical correspondence. Following a descriptive-analytic method, this paper aims to present an accurate explanation of Mullā Ṣadrā’s perception of the theory of the correspondence of worlds. It is worth mentioning that several philosophical principles, such as “the truth in its simplicity contains all things” and “identity of collective and detailed knowledge” in the Transcendent Philosophy have been developed under the influence of this theory. Mullā Ṣadrā’s concern regarding the ontological all-inclusiveness of particular existences is the portrayal of the ontological inclusion of collective existence through some truths, each of which embodies all the behaviors and evolutions of the inferior existence similar to an all-inclusive jewel. In such conditions, the knowledge of this ontological jewel, which is considered to be the truth of the inferior existence, is the same as the knowledge of all the states and aspects of the particular existence. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      4 - A Study of Specific Commonalities of Duties from Religious and Philosophical Perspectives: An Anthropological Approach
      Ali Asghar  Jafari Valani Habibeh  Molapanah
      Issue 4 , Volume 26 , Summer 2021
      This study investigates the problem of the possibility of similar duty from the viewpoints of religion and philosophy based on their anthropological principles. Since the problem of duty is tied to Man’s specific oneness and plurality, the study of religious and philoso Full Text
      This study investigates the problem of the possibility of similar duty from the viewpoints of religion and philosophy based on their anthropological principles. Since the problem of duty is tied to Man’s specific oneness and plurality, the study of religious and philosophical views in this regard could open some new horizons before us. Although religious figures and most philosophers advocate the “specific oneness” of human beings, existentialists acknowledge their specific multiplicity. Therefore, religions and most philosophers practically agree with the sameness of duties; however, theoretically speaking, it can be said that Man’s specific plurality necessitates the existence of different duties. Hence, it seems that there might be certain inconsistencies such as the contrast between Mullā Ṣadrā’s theory of Man’s specific multiplicity and his practical commitment to the similarity of duties. Nevertheless, to resolve this inconsistency, one can refer to Man’s stability in spite of their trans-substantial motion and specific plurality. Another contrast pertains to the verses referring to the essential equality of human beings and those emphasizing the performance of duties within the limits of one’s capabilities. One can refer to the difference between the stages of making the duties and their being made. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      5 - A Philosophical Reading of the Social Dimension of Perfect Man in Nahj al-Balāghah Based on Transcendent Philosophy
      sayyed mohammad ali mirdamadi , sayyed mahdi emami jomae Majid Sadeghi Hasan abadi
      Issue 4 , Volume 26 , Summer 2021
      This paper aims to provide a general picture of the social dimension of perfect Man based on the statements in Nahj al-Balāghah and their philosophical analysis relying on the principles of the Transcendent Philosophy. This social dimension includes the characteristics Full Text
      This paper aims to provide a general picture of the social dimension of perfect Man based on the statements in Nahj al-Balāghah and their philosophical analysis relying on the principles of the Transcendent Philosophy. This social dimension includes the characteristics of a perfect Man in interaction with other human beings within his social and this-worldly structure. The knowledge of perfect Man in this area reveals his civilizational role in the human society and in the actualization the Transcendent society. This study was carried out following a descriptive-analytic method. According to the teachings of Nahj al-Balāghah and the principles of the Transcendent Philosophy, beginning a philosophical revolution in society and leading it in the right direction are accomplished through intrinsic awakening and flourishing of human beings and revealing their intellectual treasures. Such treasures provide the basis for the social activities of perfect Man which, along with his other ontological perfections and because of people’s obeying him, result in the social, cultural, political, and economic development and prosperity and the establishment of transcendent society. Hence, the centrality and leadership of perfect Man and people’s obedience for him are the foundations and most important pillars of the realization of the idea of transcendent society. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      6 - Anthropological Bases of Sadrian Philosophy for the Interaction of Religious Sciences and Psychology
      Mohammad Sadeq Fazeli Askar Dirbaz
      Issue 4 , Volume 26 , Summer 2021
      The interactions between religious and modern sciences is presently one of the concerns of Islamic societies. This study investigates the anthropological principles of Sadrian philosophy based on which religious sciences and psychology can interact and exchange knowledg Full Text
      The interactions between religious and modern sciences is presently one of the concerns of Islamic societies. This study investigates the anthropological principles of Sadrian philosophy based on which religious sciences and psychology can interact and exchange knowledge with each other. In other words, it aims to demonstrate the interactions between religious sciences and modern psychology in the context of philosophical anthropology as one of the scientific foundations of these two disciplines. Following the library and content analysis methods, the researchers conclude that Sadrian philosophy, because of its anthropological principles in the two general realms of “cognitive science” and “cognitive concept”, provides an appropriate context for the exchange of data between religious sciences and psychology. Philosophical anthropology provides the necessary context for the mutual relationship between these sciences in “cognitive science” through the correct explanation of the purposes, methods, instruments, sources, structures, and criteria of religious sciences and psychology. In the context of conceptology, Sadrian philosophy has created an appropriate interactive context for the exchange of conceptual science between these disciplines through the explanation of quiddity and employment of such concepts as motivation, love, and meaning of life from an anthropological viewpoint. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      7 - “I” and the Criterion for its Distinction from “others” in Suhrawardī, Mullā Ṣadrā, and Descartes
      Sakineh Gharibi Sohrab Haghighat mansour  Imanpour
      Issue 4 , Volume 26 , Summer 2021
      The present study discusses the identity and referent of “I” and the criterion for distinguishing “true I” from the other in the views of Suhrawardī, Mullā Ṣadrā, and Descartes. According to these three philosophers, “I” is the external and self-revealing identity that Full Text
      The present study discusses the identity and referent of “I” and the criterion for distinguishing “true I” from the other in the views of Suhrawardī, Mullā Ṣadrā, and Descartes. According to these three philosophers, “I” is the external and self-revealing identity that Man learns about through presential knowledge. The referent of true I in Suhrawardī’s view is immaterial light, which enjoys continuous self-awareness through the permanent manifestation of essence. In Mullā Ṣadrā’s philosophy, referent is a level of existence which is continually in a state of change in the cradle of the trans-substantial motion; it is a graded realm with no fixed identity. For Descartes, the referent is an immaterial dimension that is continually involved in a state of thinking. Therefore, all three philosophers believe that true “I” is in fact a perceptive, knowledgeable, and thinking “I”. The distinction criterion for true I is also the same for all of them. This is because Suhrawardī and Mullā Ṣadrā consider continuous knowledge and not neglecting the self, which is the same as self-awareness, to be the distinction criterion for true I. However, Descartes’ criterion is clarity and distinction, which seem to be the same thing that Suhrawardī and Mullā Ṣadrā call continuous presence or self-awareness. Hence, it seems that the distinction criterion for “true I” is the same in the view of all the three philosophers. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      8 - A Study of the Manifestation of the Theory of Four-fold Journeys in the Architecture of Naqsh-e Jahān Square in Isfahan
      Ahmad Ali  Namdarian Somayeh Khani Parisa Hashempour
      Issue 4 , Volume 26 , Summer 2021
      Several studies have been conducted on Naqsh-e Jahān Square so far. However, there is still much to explore regarding the reasons behind its construction and development. Some of the many questions that require further research target the present sizes of its dimensions Full Text
      Several studies have been conducted on Naqsh-e Jahān Square so far. However, there is still much to explore regarding the reasons behind its construction and development. Some of the many questions that require further research target the present sizes of its dimensions, the setting of its elements, and the philosophy of using different colors and designs in the various corners of this square. Following two descriptive-analytic and historical-interpretive methods, this study investigated the thoughts and motives behind the architectural design and construction of Naqsh-e Jahān Square. The required data for this study was collected and analyzed through library and content analysis methods. The findings of the study indicate that, in addition to being the Safavid House of Government, this square functioned as a religious-political statement presenting the gnostic-Shi‘ite thoughts which had been hidden in Iranians’ unconscious mind. This square allegorizes the Holy Prophet’s night of ascension and visualizes gnostic wayfaring for wayfarers through reminding them of the different stations of the four-fold journeys. Since the time of Ibn ‘Arabī onwards and, particularly, in Mullā Ṣadrā’s philosophy, four stations have been referred to for this mystic journey called the four-fold journeys. The findings of this study show the correspondence between these four journeys with the four main elements of the square. The four journeys represent an allegory and visualization of the Holy Prophet’s journey on the night of ascension, when he travelled from Mecca to Jerusalem and then to heaven. The 1300-m2 circumference of Naqsh-e Jahān Square allegorizes the 1300 km distance between Mecca and Jerusalem. The designs of Qeysarriyah Bazar symbolize the different aspects of daily and worldly life. Sheikh Lotfollah Mosque has no courtyard and bed chamber, and the wayfarer only witnesses the manifestations of Almighty Truth by standing under the dome of the mosque. The Abbasi jām‘ Mosque is the symbol of the station of “jam‘ (reunion)” in gnostic journey. The second journey begins with traveling at the khafi (secret) and akhfi (most secret) levels, at which the wayfarer is mortalized. The third stage of wayfaring, which embodies a kind of shari‘at, is a confirmation of the idea of guardianship. At the end of the journey, the wayfarer returns to the threshold of Qeysarriyah again. However, this is not a vicious circle because the wayfarer returns to his true self through experiencing the previous stages. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      9 - Philosophy and the interaction of the world and man
      Issue 4 , Volume 26 , Summer 2021
      بيست و پنجمين همايش از سلسله همايشهاي بزرگداشت حكيم ملاصدرا به موضوع محوري «فلسفه و تعامل جهان و انسان»، بروال سالیان گذشته، در خردادماه 1400 برگزار شد. فرایند اجرایی همایش فلسفه و تعامل جهان و انسان از بهمن ماه 1399 آغاز شد و پس از تصويب اين موضوع در شوراي علمي و هيئ Full Text
      بيست و پنجمين همايش از سلسله همايشهاي بزرگداشت حكيم ملاصدرا به موضوع محوري «فلسفه و تعامل جهان و انسان»، بروال سالیان گذشته، در خردادماه 1400 برگزار شد. فرایند اجرایی همایش فلسفه و تعامل جهان و انسان از بهمن ماه 1399 آغاز شد و پس از تصويب اين موضوع در شوراي علمي و هيئت امناي بنياد حكمت اسلامي صدرا، فراخوان مقاله همايش در 29 زيرعنوان و دو بخش عمومي و تخصصي فلسفه و کودک، تنظيم و اعلان گرديد. محورهاي فراخوان مقاله عبارت بودند از: فلسفه و طبيعت؛ طبيعت از منظر حکمت الهي؛ فلسفه و نظام‌وارگي و شعور طبيعت؛ خوي و خصلت طبيعت جهانهاي کوچک و بزرگ؛ جايگاه هستي‌شناختي و معرفت‌شناختي طبيعت در حکمت متعاليه؛ فلسفه و مسئوليت انسان در قبال طبيعت؛ حکمت متعاليه و الگوي مطلوب تعامل انسان با جهان؛ تعامل با محيط زيست در سنت اسلامي (با رويکرد فلسفي)؛ بحرانهاي زيست‌محيطي از منظر فلسفة اخلاق اسلامي؛ شرور طبيعي از منظر فيلسوفان مسلمان؛ فلسفه، فناوري و محيط‌زيست؛ انسان‌شناسي در اسلام و شي‌ءوارگي انسان در دورة مدرن؛ بحرانهاي زيستي و درک مرگ و معاد؛ بحرانهاي زيستي و تأثير آن بر زيست عقلاني؛ نقش پديدة کرونا در تغيير نگرش بشر نسبت به طبيعت؛ درسهاي فلسفي براي جهان پساکرونا؛ بايسته‌هاي مناسبات انساني در جهان پساکرونا. بخش ويژه فلسفه و کودک: «فلسفه و کودک» و تربيت براي تعامل با طبيعت و شناخت آن؛ وظيفه والدين در ارتباط كودك با طبيعت و تأثير آن بر رشد تفكر؛ «فلسفه و كودك» و بايسته‌هاي مواجهه با بحرانهاي زيست‌محيطي؛ تفسير «بلاهاي آسماني» براي کودک؛ «فلسفه و کودک» و آموزش مديريت عقلاني بحران؛ فرصتها و تجربه‌هاي شرايط كرونايي در رشد تفكر كودك؛ «فلسفه و كودك» و مناسبات انساني در شرايط بحران؛ «فلسفه و کودک» و الگوهاي آموزش غيرحضوري؛ محوريت خانواده در تربيت کودکان در دوره‌هاي بحران؛ حقوق كودك در دوره‌هاي بحران و قرنطينه؛ رويكرد «فلسفه و كودك» در جهان پساكرونا؛ كودك و سبك زندگي پساكرونايي. پس از فراخوان مقاله عمومي همايش، در مدت مقرر 100 عنوان چكيده و اصل مقاله از اساتيد، صاحبنظران و پژوهشگران حوزه و دانشگاه به دبيرخانه همايش واصل گرديد كه از آن ميان، 73 عنوان چكيده مقاله در شوراي علمي همايش پذيرفته شد. مجموعة اين چکيده‌ها در یک مجلد گردآوری و منتشر گردید. مجموعه کامل مقالات برگزيده همايش نيز بزودي منتشر خواهد شد. با توجه به شرايط اجتماعي موجود در اين ايام و لزوم پرهيز از تجمع بمنظور جلوگيري از شيوع ويروس «کويد 19»، بيست و پنجمين همايش بزرگداشت ملاصدرا بصورت مجازي برگزار ميگردد. در این راستا، از میان مقالات تایید شده گروهی برای سخنرانی بصورت مجازی دعوت شدند و نهایتاً فایل صوتی این سخنرانیها نیز برای استفاده عموم از طريق پايگاه اينترنتي بنياد حکمت اسلامي صدرا بنشاني mullasadrs.org منتشر گردید. Manuscript Document
    Most Viewed Articles

    • Open Access Article

      1 - Negation through the Denial of Subject: A Study of Khwajah Nair’s View
      Seyyed Mahmoud  Yousef Sani
      Issue 2 , Volume 21 , Winter 2021
      Aristotle’s view regarding the emptiness or non-emptiness of the terms of propositions has been interpreted in two ways. In one of them, the terms of propositions always include an existing individual or some existing individuals and are non-empty. Therefore, in negativ Full Text
      Aristotle’s view regarding the emptiness or non-emptiness of the terms of propositions has been interpreted in two ways. In one of them, the terms of propositions always include an existing individual or some existing individuals and are non-empty. Therefore, in negative propositions, the collection of the individuals of the subject is never an empty collection either. Hence, there is no difference between negative and affirmative propositions regarding the necessity of the existence of individuals for their subjects. According to the other interpretation, in any proposition, whether negative or affirmative, its components should be first conceived and come into being through a mental existence. Then, if the proposition is an affirmative one, in addition to this mental concept, there should be an existing or supposedly existing individual to receive an affirmative judgment. However, in case of a negative proposition, except the mental existence of the proposition, which is necessary for passing judgment, there is no need for an existing or supposedly existing individual to receive the predicate attribute. Hence, there is a difference between affirmative and negative propositions in this regard. In his interpretation of negative propositions, Khwajah Nasir Tusi has paid attention to both aspects and considered each of the two interpretations to be correct in its own right. The first interpretation is ruled as a correct one given the propositions which are used in different sciences – and these propositions always depend on external truths. Moreover, the second interpretation is correct due to the absoluteness aspect of negative propositions, and also because a non-existent entity cannot be qualified with any quality, including the predicate attribute, since it is non-existent. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      2 - Sources of Knowledge in Mulla Sadra
      Mahdi  Zakeri Hossein  Emadzadeh
      Issue 3 , Volume 22 , Spring 2021
      In the Transcendent Philosophy, valid knowledge sources include: external senses, internal senses, intellect, intuition, testimony, and tradition. In Mulla Sadra’s view, the first source of knowledge acquisition is external senses, and common sense is the most important Full Text
      In the Transcendent Philosophy, valid knowledge sources include: external senses, internal senses, intellect, intuition, testimony, and tradition. In Mulla Sadra’s view, the first source of knowledge acquisition is external senses, and common sense is the most important internal sense of human beings. The intellect which distinguishes Man from other beings has a limit which restricts the magnitude of knowledge acquisition. Mulla Sadra divides the intellect into theoretical and practical types and, while considering both of them as knowledge sources, he sees their difference in their objects. It is only intuition which can access anything that is recognizable. Testimony, if widely transmitted and related to sensible affairs, is valid as a dependent knowledge source, and a transmitted reason, particularly in religious discussions, is an independent and infallible source. Manuscript Document

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      3 - Manifestation of Sadrian Philosophy in Islamic Architecture
      Behrooz  ‘Avazpoor Bahman  Namvar Motlagh Saina  Mohammadi Khabazan
      Issue 1 , Volume 20 , Autumn 2021
      Mulla Sadra’s philosophical thoughts profoundly influenced the development of art, in general, and the architecture of his time, in particular. Therefore, it seems necessary to carefully examine and discuss his ideas and theories in this regard in order to have a better Full Text
      Mulla Sadra’s philosophical thoughts profoundly influenced the development of art, in general, and the architecture of his time, in particular. Therefore, it seems necessary to carefully examine and discuss his ideas and theories in this regard in order to have a better and more accurate understanding of the art and architecture of that period. Since the concept of imagination plays a basic role in the definition of Islamic art from the point of view of Mulla Sadra and other Islamic philosophers and gnostics, in this paper the writers firstly deal with a part of his philosophy that explains this concept. Following this, they will refer to the role and place of imagination in art works in their general sense and explore the actualization of such works in the field of architecture, particularly, those of the Safavid era. Imagination plays such a central role in this discussion that one can define Islamic art in its general sense as the manifestation of an intelligible matter in a sensible one through active imagination. Manuscript Document

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      4 - Mulla Sadra on Oneness of Being
      Seyyed Morteza  Hosseini Shahroudi Mohammad Ali  Vatandoust
      Issue 4 , Volume 19 , Summer 2021
      In the process of development of his philosophical thoughts, Mulla Sadra managed to move from graded unity to the individual unity of existence based on his own philosophical principles. Through interpreting causality as epiphany, he limited the truth of existence to Al Full Text
      In the process of development of his philosophical thoughts, Mulla Sadra managed to move from graded unity to the individual unity of existence based on his own philosophical principles. Through interpreting causality as epiphany, he limited the truth of existence to Almighty Necessary and considered other than Him to be the emanations and different forms of the Necessary Single Existence. The writers of this paper intend to present Mulla Sadra’s ultimate theory on the oneness of being and reveal the identity of the oneness of being in the Transcendent Philosophy with gnostics’ idea of this concept. Manuscript Document

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      5 - Philosophical Principles of Human Training in the Transcendent Philosophy
      Seyyed Mehdi  Mirhadi Hassanali  Bakhtiyar Nasrabadi Mohammad  Najafi
      Issue 2 , Volume 22 , Winter 2021
      Following an analytic-deductive method, this paper is intended to provide a plan of the consequences of Mulla Sadra’s philosophical approach in the field of education. This plan can portray a framework and perspective of divine and religious training in the poisoned and Full Text
      Following an analytic-deductive method, this paper is intended to provide a plan of the consequences of Mulla Sadra’s philosophical approach in the field of education. This plan can portray a framework and perspective of divine and religious training in the poisoned and crisis-stricken atmosphere of secular educational system before our eyes. Feeding on the source of Qur’anic revelation and traditions and synthesizing reasoning and intuition have granted a particular status to Sadrian philosophy. Mulla Sadra’s innovation with regard to posing the attached identity of the soul, while solving the secret of the relationship between the body and the soul, demonstrates the possibility of the essential change of the soul (as opposed to the changes in the accidents of the soul) and clarifies the rational necessity of training. In his plan of philosophical anthropology, the soul needs the body not only for its origination but also for the realization of its identity. The body is the realm of the appearance of the soul, the loci of its acts, and Man’s only asset for creating their own identity. It also plays a complex and unique role in the process of human training. Developing a clear picture of the quality of the change of a material existent (seed) into an eternal and immaterial human could decipher his theory of the trans-substantial motion and explain the truth of education. Eventually, through presenting the theory of corporeal origination and spiritual subsistence of the soul, Mulla Sadra demonstrates that the realm of human training enjoys an amazingly profound and infinite magnitude. Manuscript Document

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      6 - Mulla Sadra: From General Gradation to Particular Oneness
      Abdolali  Shokr Morteza  Hamedi
      Issue 2 , Volume 22 , Winter 2021
      The term “gradation” was used first in logical discussions. Later some thinkers such as Ibn Sina and Suhrawardi employed it in the realm of philosophy as well. A study of the collection of Ibn Sina’s works indicates that he only treaded on the path of general gradation. Full Text
      The term “gradation” was used first in logical discussions. Later some thinkers such as Ibn Sina and Suhrawardi employed it in the realm of philosophy as well. A study of the collection of Ibn Sina’s works indicates that he only treaded on the path of general gradation. Suhrawardi, who paved the way for particular gradation in Mulla Sadra’s philosophy, considered existence to be mentally-posited. Thus he turned to gradation in essence and quiddity; a theory which was not accepted by Mulla Sadra and Peripatetic philosophers. If principiality, unity, and gradation of existence constitute the three main pillars of the Transcendent Philosophy, particular gradation and particularly particular gradation complete the Sadrian school of philosophy and signify the peak of its excellence. Mulla Sadra initially proposed particular gradation in order to reject general gradation and the theory of the difference of beings. Then he tried to provide a new interpretation for it in comparison to the Illuminationist particular gradation. While rejecting this kind of gradation and through being inspired by gnostic thoughts and the revealed Qur’anic verses, he introduced a particularly particular gradation to justify the multiplicity of existents and provide a new interpretation of oneness which is in line with gnostic oneness. Manuscript Document

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      7 - Different Sides of Training in Sadrian Geometry with an Emphasis on its Stages, Goals, Principles, and Methods
      Mohammad Reza  Shamshiri
      Issue 2 , Volume 22 , Winter 2021
      Sadrian philosophy presents a new approach to human beings and their ontological dimensions, which can be used as a foundation for developing educational theories based on an Islamic point of view. Hence, while explaining Mulla Sadra’s view of moral training along with Full Text
      Sadrian philosophy presents a new approach to human beings and their ontological dimensions, which can be used as a foundation for developing educational theories based on an Islamic point of view. Hence, while explaining Mulla Sadra’s view of moral training along with a short illustration of the related categories and using an analytic-deductive method, this study aims to draw on his theories regarding the soul as the basis for education and training in order to examine his educational denotations and conclusions with an emphasis on educational stages, objectives, principles and methods. Here, it is necessary to pay attention to the ultimate goal of moral training, that is, unveiling the truth and the related intermediate goals, including training human beings at the vegetative soul, animal soul, and human soul stages. To attain the purpose of this study, it is also of prime importance to explore the necessary interrelations between the philosophical principles of the Transcendent Philosophy and educational principles and also examine the different methods of moral training including the development of sensation, imagination, and rational faculties. Manuscript Document

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      8 - Ibn Sina and Mulla Sadra on the Soul-Body Relation: An Evaluation of the Efficiency of their Principles in Attaining their Ends
      Furugh al-Sadat  Rahimpoor
      Issue 3 , Volume 22 , Spring 2021
      One of the differences between Ibn Sina and Mulla Sadra in the field of anthropology pertains to their approach to soul-body relation. This difference is rooted in the principles underlying the philosophical school of each of them. The soul-body relation, according to M Full Text
      One of the differences between Ibn Sina and Mulla Sadra in the field of anthropology pertains to their approach to soul-body relation. This difference is rooted in the principles underlying the philosophical school of each of them. The soul-body relation, according to Mulla Sadra, is an essential and existential relation, which is the reason why he argues for the elemental body functioning as the material cause of the soul’s physical level. In contrast, based on Ibn Sina’s views, the soul needs the body merely for the acquisition of existential perfections and not for its very existence. Moreover, he maintains that there is no essential causation between the body and the soul. Next, Ibn Sina holds that the soul and the body enjoy composition by way of unification, and so does Mulla Sadra; however, he maintains that it is only through accepting some of the basic principles of the Transcendent Philosophy that one can justify this union. The next problem is that if the body and the soul have an ontological relationship with each other rather than an accidental one, is it possible for the soul’s dependence on the body to be disrupted? Besides, if it is certainly obvious that the soul is graded, should one not consider the body to be graded so that it could maintain its unity with the soul at its different levels? Due to the differences between the underlying principles of their philosophies, Mulla Sadra and Ibn Sina provide different responses to the above questions. This paper aims to study such responses analytically and evaluate the efficiency of these underlying principles in addressing their intended targets. Manuscript Document

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      9 - Explanation of Gnostic Theophanic Locutions in the Epistemology of the Transcendent Philosophy
      Muhammed  Nejati
      Issue 3 , Volume 19 , Spring 2021
      Ambiguity and contradiction of expression are among the most important features of gnostic theophanic locutions in the field of epistemology. In Mulla Sadra’s view, the clarity or ambiguity of gnostic intuition is directly related to the extent of the gnostic’s soulish Full Text
      Ambiguity and contradiction of expression are among the most important features of gnostic theophanic locutions in the field of epistemology. In Mulla Sadra’s view, the clarity or ambiguity of gnostic intuition is directly related to the extent of the gnostic’s soulish gradedness and sincerity of innermost in the process of the union of the intellect and intelligible and Shar‘i ascetic practice. Accordingly, he sees the rise of ambiguity in intuition as a product of the lack of gradedness of the gnostic’s soul and also the lack of Shar‘i ascetic practices, which leads to possible manipulations of affirmation and errors and diversions in this process. Regarding the problem of contradiction, based on his ontological principles, Mulla Sadra considers theophanic locutions a contradictory category due to their inclusion of their claims of immanence and unity with God’s essence, which necessitate duality in the essence of external objects. Based on the features mentioned above, he explicitly introduces theophanic locutions as the plight of religion and religious beliefs. However, based on his own epistemological principles, he tries to exonerate the gonstics believing in the Unity of Being, such as Bayazid and Hallaj, from this charge. On the basis of the tasha’un (modes) relationship between the Truth and creation, Mulla Sadra believes that these gnostics’ experience of annihilation means forgetting themselves and their I-ness or egoism and paying their complete attention to God’s Essence. The probable shortcoming of theophanic locutions lies in the fact that these gnostics have experienced the highest level of the union of the intellect and intelligible, which necessitates the same union by essence and by accident. However, such an experience cannot be qualified with unity and immanence, which are the basic features of sufis’ theophanic locutions. Manuscript Document

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      10 - Foreword
      Seyyed Mohammad Khamenei
      Issue 4 , Volume 22 , Summer 2021
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