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  • About the journal

    The Quarterly of Kheradname-ye Sadra is the first specialized journal of philosophy in Iran. It is published by the Sadra Islamic Philosophy Institute in order to explain and analyze the ideas of Mulla Sadra, in particular, and disseminate Islamic philosophy in general. The first issue of this Journal was published on 21st April 1995 with a scientific-promotional rank. This Journal has provided an appropriate context for introducing the differences between Islamic philosophy and Greek or Western philosophies.

    On 20th August 2006, Kheradname-ye Sadra succeeded in attaining the scientific-research rank from the Ministry of Sciences, Research, and Technology, and on 14th April 2009 it was indexed in the Inventory of Specialized Journals of the world in the field of philosophy.

    This Quarterly welcomes papers in related fields from all thinkers and interested scholars in the field of Islamic philosophy.

    The Editorial Board of Kheradname-ye Sadra consists of the following:

     

    Grantee: The Sadra Islamic Philosophy Research Institute (SIPRIn)

     Director and Editor-in-Chief: Professor Seyyed Mohammed Khamenei

     

    Members of the Editorial Board:

    Seyyed Mohammed Khamenei, Sadra Islamic Philosophy Research Institute (SIPRIn)

    Gholamhossein Ibrahimi Dinani, Tehran University

    Ahmad Ahmadi, Tehran University

    Gholamreza A‘awani, Shahid Beheshti University

    Reza Dawari Ardakani, Tehran University

    Karim Mojtahedi, Tehran University

    Seyyed Mostafa Mohaqqiq Damad, Shahid Beheshti University

    Maqsoud Mohammadi, Islamic Azad University

     

    Interested people can receive Kheradname-ye Sadra through the post by contacting the following phone number: 021 88153594.


    Recent Articles

    • Open Access Article

      1 - Editor's Note
      S. Mohammad Khamenei
      Issue 2 , Vol. 29 , Winter 2024
      حکومت مردمی، در اصطلاح، حکومتی است که براساس اراده و انتخاب افراد جامعه باشد و مدیران کشور، نمایندگی و نیابت مردم را داشته باشند. این شکل حکومت ـ که در اصل و تاریخ خود، آوردۀ اسلام و ادیان واقعی گذشته است و ریشه در کرامت ذاتی انسان دارد، که قرآن به آن اشاره کرده ـ بر اس More
      حکومت مردمی، در اصطلاح، حکومتی است که براساس اراده و انتخاب افراد جامعه باشد و مدیران کشور، نمایندگی و نیابت مردم را داشته باشند. این شکل حکومت ـ که در اصل و تاریخ خود، آوردۀ اسلام و ادیان واقعی گذشته است و ریشه در کرامت ذاتی انسان دارد، که قرآن به آن اشاره کرده ـ بر اساس کرامت انسان و آزادی و آزادگی ذاتی است که به انسان داده شده است، از اینروست که کسی حق ندارد اراده و قدرت خود را بر افراد دیگر تحمیل نماید. اما تحقیق نشان میدهد که این اصل، مطلق نیست و شرایطی دارد، یعنی همانگونه که معمولاً عقل و بلوغ را شرط میدانند و محجورین و افراد نابالغ یا سفیه، حق انتخاب ندارند، شروط ضروری دیگری هم هست که رعایت نکردن آنها سبب تسلط افراد قدرت‌طلب، بر حکومت، از راه فریبکاری و جلب آراء و ارادۀ مردم میگردد. چون دادن وکالت و نمایندگی در واقع بمعنای «واگذاری تمام سرنوشت و مصالح خود بمدت چهار سال به شخص وکیل یا وزیر است»، بنابرین لزوماً مشروط به آگاهی و بصیرت و شناخت رأی‌دهندگان میباشد و باید مردم از صلاحیت و صلاح نمایندۀ خود مطمئن و به صحت تشخیص و ممیزی دستگاههای نظارتی اعتماد داشته باشند و خادم و خائن را از هم تمییز دهند، وگرنه آینده و روزگار خود را تباه خواهند کرد. از سوی دیگر، آگاهی اکثریت افراد جامعه شاذ و نادر است؛ بایستی در کنار مردم، مشاوران و مرشدان آگاه یا نهادهایی هوشیار و دشمن‌شناس باشند که افرادی صالح را که نامزد انتخاب میشوند، بشناسند و از آنها حمایت، یا آنها را معرفی کنند. علاوه بر این، مرشدان صادق و آگاه، ضروری است که شورای نگهبان و دستگاههای نظارت کننده نیز، بسبب خطراتی که در اندک تسامح یا کلی‌نگری وجود دارد، علاوه بر ظواهر اشخاص، به قرائنی که حاکی از نادرستی و انحرافات جزئی سیاسی آنها باشد نیز توجه کنند، زیرا برخلاف آنچه در امور عادی و معاشرت با مردم اصالة‌الصحة جاری است، در عرصۀ سیاست و گزینش افرادی برای ادارۀ کشور، اصل عقلایی و درست، اصالة‌الفساد است و این اصل ضامن سلامت و اعتبار حکومت و راحت مردم جامعه خواهد شد. امید است مسئولین و معتمدین مردم در شناخت بهتر مردم از نامزدهای انتخابات، کوتاهی ننمایند. Manuscript profile

    • Open Access Article

      2 - Mullā Ṣadrā and the Role of Perfection-Seeking in the Rise of an Optimal Civilizational System
      Ali  Mostajeran Goortani Mahdi Ganjvar Seyyed Mahdi  Emami Jome
      Issue 2 , Vol. 29 , Winter 2024
      Perfection-seeking is one of the important features and principles in the development of an optimal civilizational system. Relying on the human truth, which consists of appearance and innermost, Mullā Ṣadrā aims to portray a social system based on Man’s ontological pote More
      Perfection-seeking is one of the important features and principles in the development of an optimal civilizational system. Relying on the human truth, which consists of appearance and innermost, Mullā Ṣadrā aims to portray a social system based on Man’s ontological potentials. The reason is that human beings, due to their primordial nature, are in pursuit of civil life, and their worldly and otherworldly goals can only be achieved in the context of a civilizational system. The purpose of the present study is to present a plan in relation to the development and reinforcement of a civilizational system relying on three principles that originate in Sadrian philosophy. The first deals with the origin of perfection-seeking and its effect on social life. The second is related to the issue of property and law, which pave the context for the rise of a civilizational system. The third principle pertains to the identification and suggestion of philosophical strategies for resolving civilizational crises. The purpose of examining these principles is to pay attention to human capabilities and potentials and discover how a perfection-seeking human develops the ability to attain supreme goals. The findings of this study indicate that the Transcendent philosophy, on the one hand, seeks to introduce a plan and program for optimizing the civilizational system through paying attention to Man’s ontological levels and potentials of a civilizational system. On the other hand, it can provide a desirable model for the flourishing of civilizational life through organizing Man’s achievements in nature in the light of science, power, and creativity. Manuscript profile

    • Open Access Article

      3 - Corporeal Origination of the Soul: A Comparative Study of the Views of Mullā Ṣadrā’s Commentators
      Ebrahim Moslempour Angarabi Sohrab  Haghighat Mansur  Imanpour
      Issue 2 , Vol. 29 , Winter 2024
      Mullā Ṣadrā considered the soul corporeal at the stage of origination and spiritual at the stage of survival. In his view, corporal matter gradually moves through the levels of perfection in the light of its trans-substantial motion until it reaches the level of immater More
      Mullā Ṣadrā considered the soul corporeal at the stage of origination and spiritual at the stage of survival. In his view, corporal matter gradually moves through the levels of perfection in the light of its trans-substantial motion until it reaches the level of immateriality. This was considered a revolutionary theory in the history of Islamic philosophy. Given the significance of this problem, Mullā Ṣadrā’s commentators have paid particular attention to explaining the soul’s corporeal origination in Mullā Ṣadrā’s view; however, they have not always been unanimous in their ideas in this regard. Generally speaking, when explaining the meaning and nature of the corporeal origination of the soul, the commentators of Mullā Ṣadrā’s works can be divided into three groups: some of them believe that the word corporeal in this theory refers to the natural body; some others have interpreted it as something that bears a strong relation to the body, and the third group provides a general meaning for this word including both the natural body and immaterial existent. The main purpose of this study is to analyze and explain the views of these three groups and, thus, clarify the real meaning of the corporeal origination of the soul based on an analytic-descriptive method. Manuscript profile

    • Open Access Article

      4 - Corporeal Resurrection Based on Ibn ‘Arabī’s Gnostic Principles
      Hadi  Jafary Ali  Arshad Riahi
      Issue 2 , Vol. 29 , Winter 2024
      Ibn Arabi is one of the gnostics who has paid particular attention to Man’s corporeal resurrection and its quality in his works. When demonstrating corporeal resurrection, he mainly relies on unveiling and intuition rather than rational demonstration. However, the autho More
      Ibn Arabi is one of the gnostics who has paid particular attention to Man’s corporeal resurrection and its quality in his works. When demonstrating corporeal resurrection, he mainly relies on unveiling and intuition rather than rational demonstration. However, the authors of this paper believe that Man’s posthumous corporeal dimension in purgatory and the hereafter can also be proved based on Ibn ‘Arabī’s gnostic principles. Apart from the quality of corporeal resurrection, the question is whether corporeal resurrection itself can be demonstrated relying on such principles or not. This study, which was carried out following the method of content analysis, aimed to provide a convenient response to this question and, thus, concluded that corporeal resurrection is demonstrable based on some of Ibn ‘Arabī’s principles such as Man’s distinction and determination in the process of ascent, the relationship between the macro-anthropo and micro-anthoropo, the theory of contrasting names, nobility of sensory faculties, creation of Man in God’s face, gnostic knowledge of the soul, Man’s level of comprehensiveness and moderation, and repetition in epiphany and renewal of likes. The authors also conclude that the idea that Man is originally an incorporeal existent and finally returns to his incorporeal birthplace is absurd. They argue that the human face must possess a body; hence, even if Shari’a has not spoken of corporeal resurrection, it can be proved based on gnostic principles. Manuscript profile

    • Open Access Article

      5 - Place of Intuitive Method in Islamic Philosophy
      Rasoul  Naderi
      Issue 2 , Vol. 29 , Winter 2024
      Islamic philosophy is mainly identified by its use of demonstration and method. However, a study of philosophical texts in Islamic tradition indicates that the intuitive method holds an important place in this field. This method employs gnostic intuition and unveiling i More
      Islamic philosophy is mainly identified by its use of demonstration and method. However, a study of philosophical texts in Islamic tradition indicates that the intuitive method holds an important place in this field. This method employs gnostic intuition and unveiling in order to attain certain knowledge. The intuitive method was used in all the three major schools of Islamic philosophy; nevertheless, it was employed systematically and in an organized fashion for the first time in the Transcendent Philosophy. While emphasizing the use of rational method, Mullā Ṣadrā has also benefitted from the intuitive method to a large extent. The functions of this method are employed in two contexts: discovery and justification. In the context of discovery, Muslim philosophers have utilized the intuitive method to explain new philosophical problems and present a correct picture of some philosophical issues. In the context of justification, they have used it to discover middle terms, unveil fallacies, reconstruct demonstration, amend conclusions, and demonstrate rational arguments. Manuscript profile

    • Open Access Article

      6 - Effects of Ideal Immateriality in Islamic Philosophy
      Shahabbodin  Vahidi Mehrjardy Ehsan  Kordi Ardakani Vahid  Gerami
      Issue 2 , Vol. 29 , Winter 2024
      A significant problem in Islamic philosophy is investigating the various dimensions and aspects of immateriality in the view of philosophers. One of the most important problems in the discussion of immateriality is the acceptance or rejection of Ideal immateriality, whi More
      A significant problem in Islamic philosophy is investigating the various dimensions and aspects of immateriality in the view of philosophers. One of the most important problems in the discussion of immateriality is the acceptance or rejection of Ideal immateriality, which has been one of the major concerns of Islamic philosophers in the course of history. Among them, Peripatetic philosophers accepted the world of intellects and rational immateriality by denying the Ideal world and Ideal immateriality and considered the faculty of imagination to be material. However, Suhrawardī and Mullā Ṣadrā tried to demonstrate the Ideal world based on their own philosophical principles. Suhrawardī believed in the disjunctive Ideal world, while Mullā Ṣadrā believed in the connected Ideal world and the immateriality of the faculty of imagination in addition to the disconnected Ideal world. The present study aims to examine the effects of Ideal immateriality in Islamic philosophy and its role in resolving philosophical intricate problems. Here, the authors have investigated eleven effects of Ideal immateriality in different philosophical fields including the resurrection of incomplete and average souls; lack of the need to study the spheres and accepting reincarnation in the discussion of resurrection; demonstration of corporeal resurrection; a correct and rational interpretation of vanity of sin, immateriality of animals’ souls and their resurrection; subsistence of particular perceptions after death; the link between the world of intellects and the material world; an accurate interpretation of the Holy Prophet’s dreams, unveilings, and ascent; a correct interpretation of the state of death, purgatory, and the hereafter; the interpretation of jinn in Illuminationist philosophy, and the subsistence of issuing forms for the soul. Manuscript profile

    • Open Access Article

      7 - A Critical Study of the Definition of Practice in Mullā Ṣadrā
      Fatemeh Sadat Ketabchi Keramat Varzdar
      Issue 2 , Vol. 29 , Winter 2024
      Mullā Ṣadrā maintains that the distinction of practice from other acts pertains to its “intentional” nature. In his view, “intention” includes the free will accompanied with the second level of consciousness acting based on the purpose of practice. Therefore, not each v More
      Mullā Ṣadrā maintains that the distinction of practice from other acts pertains to its “intentional” nature. In his view, “intention” includes the free will accompanied with the second level of consciousness acting based on the purpose of practice. Therefore, not each voluntary act is called “practice”; rather, practice is a voluntary act that emerges along with the second level consciousness based on the purpose of act. The results of this study, which was conducted following a descriptive-analytic method and through the analysis of conceptual concomitants of practice, indicate that Mullā Ṣadrā’s definition is not mutually exclusive. This is because, based on the example of “self-conscious” robot, one can assume an agent that enjoys free will and consciousness but its act is not intentional. Therefore, to complete the definition of practice, in addition to free will and consciousness, one needs a third element or the same “choice”. Mullā Ṣadrā does not officially recognize “choice” as the third element of practice and reduces it to the same consciousness and the free will. Nevertheless, the present study demonstrates that he is wrong, and “choice” in the sense of “the freedom to use the free will” must be added to the definition of practice. This study mainly aims to examine the quiddative structure of “practice” in the Transcendent Philosophy and distinguish “practice” from other similar affairs. Manuscript profile

    • Open Access Article

      8 - Whatness, Origin, and Purpose of Essentialist Education
      Ahmadreza Azarbayejani Mohammdreza Sarmadi Faezeh Nateghi Alireza Faghihi
      Issue 2 , Vol. 29 , Winter 2024
      Mullā Ṣadrā places the “truth” in idealism alongside “truths” in realism in his Transcendent Philosophy. For him, truths are the same truth that reveals itself at different levels. In the view of gnostics, the four-fold spiritual journeys are a way for gnostic transcend More
      Mullā Ṣadrā places the “truth” in idealism alongside “truths” in realism in his Transcendent Philosophy. For him, truths are the same truth that reveals itself at different levels. In the view of gnostics, the four-fold spiritual journeys are a way for gnostic transcendence that the wayfarer traverses at different stages. This journey begins from fiṭrah (primordial nature), which has different levels with nature as its lowest level. Therefore, this journey or, in a sense, this process of learning begins with nature and becomes complete through a hierarchy of stages. The level of learning includes the level of theory and practice at the same time. Mullā Ṣadrā’s philosophical methodology is based on revelation, rational demonstration, and intuition in the sense that all elements must perceive and confirm the reality and truth of a finding. Relying on the Transcendent Philosophy, the present study follows a demonstrative method in order to define essentialist education and explain its origin and purposes. In doing so, it benefits from a meta-analytic method to introduce the levels of essentialist learning, which is based on human fiṭrah. The purpose of this study is to present a conceptual model for education and learning whose philosophical foundations are not necessarily limited to one specific philosophical school. Manuscript profile
    Most Viewed Articles

    • Open Access Article

      1 - Foreword
      Seyyed Mohammad Khamenei
      Issue 4 , Vol. 22 , Summer 2017

    • Open Access Article

      2 - -
      Seyyed Mohammad Khamenei
      Issue 4 , Vol. 22 , Summer 2017

    • Open Access Article

      3 -
      Seyyed Mohammad Khamenei
      Issue 3 , Vol. 20 , Spring 2015

    • Open Access Article

      4 - Unity of Being, Unity of Intuition, and Speaking of God
      Ghasim  Kakaie Tayyebeh Masoumi
      Issue 3 , Vol. 20 , Spring 2015
      One of the most important discussions in Islamic philosophy, kalam, and gnosis is speaking of God. The “unity of being” and “unity of intuition” have been proposed as two approaches to the quality of the relationship between the wayfaring gnostic servant and God and spe More
      One of the most important discussions in Islamic philosophy, kalam, and gnosis is speaking of God. The “unity of being” and “unity of intuition” have been proposed as two approaches to the quality of the relationship between the wayfaring gnostic servant and God and speaking of Him. Each of these approaches has some representatives in the tradition of Islamic gnosis and each has specific beliefs regarding gnostic unity. In this paper, through explaining the theories of the unity of being (based on Ibn Arabi’s ideas) and the unity of intuition (based on ‘Ala al-Dawlah Semnani’s views), the writers initially discuss their differences concerning unity. Then they explore the concept of “personal God” as one of the necessities and basic principles of the theory of the unity of intuition as opposed to the Absolute God of the theory of the unity of being. Manuscript profile

    • Open Access Article

      5 - Evidence on the Presence of the Principiality of Existence in Ibn Sina’s Thoughts in the Viewpoint of the Transcendent Philosophy
      Mostafa  Momeni
      Issue 4 , Vol. 22 , Summer 2017
      The principiality of existence is the basis of the Transcendent Philosophy. Mulla Sadra has demonstrated this principle based on solid arguments and used it as the foundation of his other philosophical principles. Although this issue was not raised in the time of Ibn Si More
      The principiality of existence is the basis of the Transcendent Philosophy. Mulla Sadra has demonstrated this principle based on solid arguments and used it as the foundation of his other philosophical principles. Although this issue was not raised in the time of Ibn Sina, one could ask if it could be traced in his words. Another related question here is whether any sound evidence demonstrating the existence of this principle could be found in Ibn Sina’s thoughts so that there would remain no excuse for interpreting his philosophy based on the principiality of quiddity. This study is intended to provide a number of strong proofs in favor of the considerable influence of the principiality of existence on Sinan philosophy through resorting to the statements made by Mulla Sadra and Ibn Sina. In order to confirm his intended principiality of existence, Mulla Sadra refers to Ibn Sina’s words. In fact, many of his views reveal his belief in the principiality of existence, and there are some direct references to this point in his works. Here, the author will try to present and explain the proofs testifying to the truth of this claim within the borderlines of the conducted study. Manuscript profile

    • Open Access Article

      6 - Mulla Sadra’s View of Philosophy
      Mansure  Rahmani Ahad Faramarz Gharamaleki Faramarz Gharamaleki Ghasim  Kakaie
      Issue 4 , Vol. 22 , Summer 2017
      In the view of some philosophers, philosophy has been reduced to mental wayfaring and conceptual exchanges. In contrast, based on certain practical aspects, some other philosophers consider philosophy to be the same as ontological wayfaring. In Mulla Sadra’s view, philo More
      In the view of some philosophers, philosophy has been reduced to mental wayfaring and conceptual exchanges. In contrast, based on certain practical aspects, some other philosophers consider philosophy to be the same as ontological wayfaring. In Mulla Sadra’s view, philosophy reflects the process of the perfection of the human soul in an essential and graded sense in the light of ontological wayfaring rather than in a quantitative or qualitative sense. He maintains that the end of philosophy is to become similar to God, and this similarity is realized through attaining all-inclusive knowledge and becoming separate from corporeal things. Assuming the sameness of philosophy and wayfaring results in pluralism in philosophizing, limitless philosophizing, separation of epistemological promotion from ontological promotion, methodological pluralism, and go togetherness of the purification of the soul and philosophy. Based on equating philosophy with wayfaring, Mulla Sadra tries to organize the structure of the Transcendent Philosophy based on the model of the four-fold journeys. Manuscript profile

    • Open Access Article

      7 - Negation through the Denial of Subject: A Study of Khwajah Nair’s View
      Seyyed Mahmoud  Yousef Sani
      Issue 2 , Vol. 21 , Winter 2016
      Aristotle’s view regarding the emptiness or non-emptiness of the terms of propositions has been interpreted in two ways. In one of them, the terms of propositions always include an existing individual or some existing individuals and are non-empty. Therefore, in negativ More
      Aristotle’s view regarding the emptiness or non-emptiness of the terms of propositions has been interpreted in two ways. In one of them, the terms of propositions always include an existing individual or some existing individuals and are non-empty. Therefore, in negative propositions, the collection of the individuals of the subject is never an empty collection either. Hence, there is no difference between negative and affirmative propositions regarding the necessity of the existence of individuals for their subjects. According to the other interpretation, in any proposition, whether negative or affirmative, its components should be first conceived and come into being through a mental existence. Then, if the proposition is an affirmative one, in addition to this mental concept, there should be an existing or supposedly existing individual to receive an affirmative judgment. However, in case of a negative proposition, except the mental existence of the proposition, which is necessary for passing judgment, there is no need for an existing or supposedly existing individual to receive the predicate attribute. Hence, there is a difference between affirmative and negative propositions in this regard. In his interpretation of negative propositions, Khwajah Nasir Tusi has paid attention to both aspects and considered each of the two interpretations to be correct in its own right. The first interpretation is ruled as a correct one given the propositions which are used in different sciences – and these propositions always depend on external truths. Moreover, the second interpretation is correct due to the absoluteness aspect of negative propositions, and also because a non-existent entity cannot be qualified with any quality, including the predicate attribute, since it is non-existent. Manuscript profile

    • Open Access Article

      8 - Sources of Knowledge in Mulla Sadra
      Mahdi  Zakeri Hossein  Emadzadeh
      Issue 3 , Vol. 22 , Spring 2017
      In the Transcendent Philosophy, valid knowledge sources include: external senses, internal senses, intellect, intuition, testimony, and tradition. In Mulla Sadra’s view, the first source of knowledge acquisition is external senses, and common sense is the most important More
      In the Transcendent Philosophy, valid knowledge sources include: external senses, internal senses, intellect, intuition, testimony, and tradition. In Mulla Sadra’s view, the first source of knowledge acquisition is external senses, and common sense is the most important internal sense of human beings. The intellect which distinguishes Man from other beings has a limit which restricts the magnitude of knowledge acquisition. Mulla Sadra divides the intellect into theoretical and practical types and, while considering both of them as knowledge sources, he sees their difference in their objects. It is only intuition which can access anything that is recognizable. Testimony, if widely transmitted and related to sensible affairs, is valid as a dependent knowledge source, and a transmitted reason, particularly in religious discussions, is an independent and infallible source. Manuscript profile

    • Open Access Article

      9 - A Study of Suhrawardi’s and Mulla Sadra’s Interpretations of the Ontological Relationship between Quiddity and Existence in Ibn Sina’s Philosophy
       
      Issue 4 , Vol. 22 , Summer 2017
      Since Farabi’s time, the division of possible beings into quiddity and existence is considered to be the most important difference between them and the Necessary Being. Existence is neither identical with possible essence, nor one of its parts or effects. Accordingly, p More
      Since Farabi’s time, the division of possible beings into quiddity and existence is considered to be the most important difference between them and the Necessary Being. Existence is neither identical with possible essence, nor one of its parts or effects. Accordingly, possible beings consist of essence and existence, which occurs to it. Farabi was the first to propose an idea of the combination of existence and quiddity; an idea which does not clearly discriminate between the subject and the object. Apparently, Ibn Sina expanded the same view; however, there are some traces in his philosophy which can pave the way for moving from external accidence to analytic accidence. Commentators of Ibn Sina have presented different interpretations of his idea of the ontological relationship between existence and quiddity, two of the most important of which are the ones supported by Suhrawardi and Mulla Sadra. In the interpretation favored by Suhrawardi, the relationship between existence and quiddity is similar to any other relationship between accidents and their subjects. However, in Mulla Sadra’s interpretation, the essential difference between existence and other accidents is greatly emphasized. Here, the relationship between existence and quiddity has been promoted from “affirmation of something for something” to the “affirmation of a thing” and, as a result, Suhrawardi’s objections to Ibn Sina are removed. In this paper, after presenting and demonstrating the presuppositions of Ibn Sina’s theory, the author refers to and examines the above-mentioned two interpretations. Manuscript profile

    • Open Access Article

      10 - A Study of Qunawi’s Philosophical Gnosis
      Gholamreza  Hosseinpour
      Issue 4 , Vol. 22 , Summer 2017
      Sadr al-Din Qunawi’s Miftah al-ghayb, as the first book on theoretical gnosis, provided the basis for theoretical or philosophical gnosis. This is because Ibn Arabi, who is known as the father of Islamic theoretical gnosis, did not have enough time for doing so, thus it More
      Sadr al-Din Qunawi’s Miftah al-ghayb, as the first book on theoretical gnosis, provided the basis for theoretical or philosophical gnosis. This is because Ibn Arabi, who is known as the father of Islamic theoretical gnosis, did not have enough time for doing so, thus it was Qunawi who accomplished this task. Alongside the Peripatetic and Illuminationist schools of philosophy, Qunawi founded a school that can be called philosophical gnosis. In spite of his pessimistic view of theoretical intellect, Qunawi acknowledged that unveiling and gnostic taste agree with the theoretical intellect at all stages because they find no contradiction in the proofs of this kind of intellect. Nevertheless, he believes that the perception of such proofs is beyond the capabilities of human imagination. Qunawi tried to reconcile gnostics’ principles of unveiling and philosophical theories. In developing many of his views, he benefitted from Ibn Sina’s al-Isharat and, particularly, Khwajah Nasir al-Din Tusi’s commentary on this book. As a result, one can equate the philosophical language used by Qunawi with that used in the Peripatetic philosophy, particularly with the language employed in Ibn Sina’s al-Isharat, which plays a significant role in granting a philosophical nature to Qunawi’s gnosis. Manuscript profile
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