The interactions between religious and modern sciences is presently one of the concerns of Islamic societies. This study investigates the anthropological principles of Sadrian philosophy based on which religious sciences and psychology can interact and exchange knowledge with each other. In other words, it aims to demonstrate the interactions between religious sciences and modern psychology in the context of philosophical anthropology as one of the scientific foundations of these two disciplines. Following the library and content analysis methods, the researchers conclude that Sadrian philosophy, because of its anthropological principles in the two general realms of “cognitive science” and “cognitive concept”, provides an appropriate context for the exchange of data between religious sciences and psychology. Philosophical anthropology provides the necessary context for the mutual relationship between these sciences in “cognitive science” through the correct explanation of the purposes, methods, instruments, sources, structures, and criteria of religious sciences and psychology. In the context of conceptology, Sadrian philosophy has created an appropriate interactive context for the exchange of conceptual science between these disciplines through the explanation of quiddity and employment of such concepts as motivation, love, and meaning of life from an anthropological viewpoint.