Today the whatness of Man’s voluntary act, its explanation, and the range of their free will in the world of being is studied under the topic of “philosophy of act”. Muslim philosophers have presented some noteworthy innovations and solutions in this realm as well. In t More
Today the whatness of Man’s voluntary act, its explanation, and the range of their free will in the world of being is studied under the topic of “philosophy of act”. Muslim philosophers have presented some noteworthy innovations and solutions in this realm as well. In this tradition, supplication as a voluntary act is explored from two general aspects in both kalam and philosophy: its relationship with the Divine Will and its relationship with the necessity of the causal system. It was Ibn Sina who, for the first time, portrayed a framework for the problems related to this theme. However, some of his succeeding philosophers, such as Mir Damad, Mulla Sadra, Sabziwari, and ‘Allamah Tabataba’i, also made great contributions to the explanation and expansion of the realm of supplication through presenting a number of arguments and discussions. In this paper, the authors have examined the problem of supplication from the viewpoints of Ibn Sina, Mulla Sadra, and ‘Allamah Tabataba’i. A comparison of their views reveals that Ibn Sina has explained the problem of supplication within the causal system. He believes that each and every event is natural or voluntary at the level of affirmation, and natural, voluntary, or accidental at the level of demonstration. Accordingly, the difference between the “reason” and “cause” returns to the difference between the levels of affirmation and demonstration, and one cannot consider the reason and justification independent from the cause or clarification. While accepting the framework of Ibn Sina’s theory and considering supplication to be effective in the causal system, Mulla Sadra disagrees with him in certain respects. His explanation indicates that he considers a greater effect and range for the human voluntary act. Through believing in the gradation of existence, he advances two objections to Ibn Sina’s theory. When explaining the problem of supplication, Mulla Sadra refers to the gradation and union of the intellect and the intelligible; however, it is ‘Allamah Tabataba’i who provides a configuration for the expansion of the theory of the union of the intellect and intelligible when clarifying the concept of supplication, that is, explaining the relationship between the free will, the object of will, the will and, in the same vein, the relationship between the act, the agent, and the product. Through expanding Mulla Sadra’s view, ‘Allamah provides a more accurate explanation for supplication. Nevertheless, his view has been the target of criticism by some authorities.